Critical Thinking

Zamora West Point, until it was sadly concluded

Zamora 1   Who  could  have  predicted  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower,  the  third  of   seven sons born  in  a  religious,  Mennonite  pacifist  family  who  opposed  war,  would  be  the   34th  president  of  the  United States?  Fascinating  right?  This  poverty  raised  Texan emerged  to  be  one  of  the  most  successful  president  of the  United States.  Prior  to his   birth,   Eisenhower’s   family  had  moved  from Abilene,  Kansas  to  Denison,  Texas  where  he  was  ultimately  born. Just  a  year  and  a  half  after  the  birth  of Dwight,  his  family  had  moved  back  to  Abilene  so  David,  Dwight’s  father,  could work  at  his  brother-in-law’s  creamery.  Eisenhower’s  childhood  was  mainly composed  of  happy  memories  despite  the  death  of  his  10  month  old  younger brother  at  the  age  of  four  from  diphtheria.  Growing  up, Dwight,  referred  to  as  Ike in  the  family,  did  family  chores,  delighted  in  hunting,  fishing,  and  football,  and eagerly  read  military  history.  Among  these  years,  sports  had  been  imminent  from  childhood  until  his  graduation  at  Abilene  High  School.  Thereafter,  Dwight  along side  with  his father  and  uncle,  had  worked  at  Belle  Springs  Creamery  while  also moonlighting  as  a  fireman.  Living  in  poverty  had  always  been  a  challenge the Eisenhowers underwent. The money that Dwight had earned was used to pay his older brother Edgar’s tuition at the University of Michigan. The brothers had made a promise to switch places– with Edgar working to support Dwight’s college education. Fortunately for Edgar, Dwight had won an appointment at the U.S Military Academy at West Point, New York, where tuition was not an issue. Reliving his high school experience, Dwight Zamora 2had become a star on the football field playing for West Point, until it was sadly concluded due to a series of knee injuries. In spite of his career ending injuries, Eisenhower continued his education at West Point, graduated, and was commissioned as second lieutenant.  That same year of his graduation, he met and started dating 18 year-old Mamie Geneva Doud at Texas where Dwight was stationed. 9 months later, Eisenhower was promoted to first lieutenant, the same day the couple married. In the year 1917, Mamie gave birth to their first son Doud Dwight. In that same year, the United States converged with the Allies at the brink of WWI. Dwight advanced up the ranks throughout the war and thereafter and eventually was promoted to major in 1920. In 1929, after finishing his tour under General John Pershing, Eisenhower was appointed chief military aide under Douglas MacArthur. In the Philippines, Eisenhower served as an assistant military advisor under MacArthur. After a series of ranks and promotions, Eisenhower was promoted to major general in 1942 and led Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa as he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Allied Forces. He subsequently led the D-Day invasion in Normandy 2 years later on June 6 and was again promoted to a five-star rank. Following the surrender of Germany from WWII in 1945, he was selected to be military governor of the U.S Occupied Zone. Between the years of 1945 and 1950, Eisenhower was additionally promoted to chief of staff and elected president of Columbia University, a position held until December of Zamora 31950 when he decided to leave Columbia and accept an appointment as first Supreme Allied Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Uplifted by the support of his Republican emissaries to run for president of the United States while in Paris with NATO, Eisenhower divulged his candidacy for the Republican party as he retired from active service and returned back to Abilene. On November 4, 1952 Eisenhower was elected the 34th president of the United States after he swept his competition with his irresistible slogan “I like Ike”. Picking up after Roosevelt’s New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal programs, Eisenhower aspired to reduce strains built up in the Cold War using military negotiation. Another prime focus of his supervision was world peace. In 1953 during the Cold War, Eisenhower uttered his famed “Atoms for Peace” soliciting the use of atomic energy for positive and peaceful uses rather than using it for war and violence. In that same year, Eisenhower orchestrated an armistice that brought peace to South Korea’s border. Throughout his career, he also succeeded in preventing the spread of communism around the world.He authorized the CIA to undertake covert operations against communism worldwide, two of which toppled the governments of Iran in 1953 and Guatemala in 1954.  With the support of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, he succeeded in strengthening NATO and in creating Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to combat communist expansion in that region. Although one of his main focuses during his term as president was to eradicate the existence of communism worldwide, he did, however, dislike Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anticommunist crusade, which violated the civil liberties of Zamora 4many citizens, culminating a series of sensational televised hearings in the spring of 1954. Dwight eventually attempted to discredit MacArthur, working behind the scenes. However, he avoided publicly criticizing him because MacArthur would only gain more power and publicity through it.  America only benefited from the years in office Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected. Many far-reaching accomplishments are perspicuous throughout the United States. As the age of Civil Rights arose and racial inequality being an issue, it was the president’s duty to address these issues. In 1954, in the case of Brown V. the Board of Education of Topeka, the U.S Supreme Court had ruled that school segregation was unconstitutional. His background leaning toward republicanism, he was reluctant to use his presidential authority to support the court’s verdict. However, he did send federal troops to Little Rock in 1957 to enforce integration of a high school there. It may seem that Eisenhower’s hesitance in assistance to Civil Rights institutes him as a shoddy president, however, he did sign Civil Rights legislation in 1957 and 1960 providing federal protection for black voters, which was the first of such legislation passed since the reconstruction. Dwight also championed the establishment of the Interstate Highway System, a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System. The construction of this 47,857 mile long network was completed in 1991, 35 years after its authorization, and has since expedited the American way of transportation. Even after his years of presidency, he sought to provide the American military a word of caution as he delivered his farewell address of January 1961 in what Zamora 5he called the “military-industrial complex.” Due to combination of natural defense needs with advances in technology, he warned, a partnership between the military establishment and big business threatened to extract an undue influence on the course of American government. To conclude, Dwight D. Eisenhower, not only positively influence Americans toward a life of equity and equality, but also guided it toward peace. Without Eisenhower’s brilliance throughout the years of active service, tactile leadership among nations, and ability to cope with the responsibility to American civilians, the United States would not be at its current condition.

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