Critical Thinking

Two seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 at the

Two
field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons of 2014/2015 and
2015/2016 at the Research Farm Al-Kawthar, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag
University, to determine the effect of two planting dates(25 November and10 December) and three
nitrogen fertilizer levels(50, 75 and 100 kg N/fed.) on yield and its
components of four bread wheat varieties(Sids
12,Giza 168,NGB 6404V2 and NGB 10893 V3). A randomized complete block design
(RCBD) in split- split plot with four replications was used. Data indicated that the planting dates,nitrogen fertilizer
levels and varieties had significantly effect on the all studied traits; plant
height (cm), spike length (cm), 1000-grain
weight (g), grain yield (ard./fed.), biological
yield (ton/fed.),straw yield (ton/fed.) and harvest  index(%)in the both
seasons.Increasing N up to 100 kg/fed increased yield

and its attributes of wheat in both growing
seasonsexceptplant height (cm), spike
length (cm)and harvest 
index(%).Sids 12 variety
produced the highest
values of grain yieldcompared to other varieties in both seasons.Moreover,NGB
10893 varietyproduced
thethe maximum values ofspike
length (cm) and1000-grain weight (g)in both seasons.
While,NGB
6404varietyproduced the tallest plants.
Late planting (10December) increased significantly, plant height (cm), spike length (cm), 1000-grain weight, grain yield (ard./fed.), biological andstraw yields
(ton/fed.).In general the highest grain yield (21.59ard./fed.) was
obtained by Sids 12 varietywhen planted in 
10 Decemberand application of 100
kg N/fed.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Key words: Wheatvarieties, plantingdates,nitrogen
fertilizer levels andgrain yield.

 

INTRODUCTION

Wheat is the most
important strategic commodity for the populations all over the world and comes
at the first order in Egypt, not only for human food but also for animal
feeding. Wheat is the main winter cereal crop in Egypt and is widely
distributed all over the country .The cultivated area* (3.47 million feddans in 2014/2015 season with an average grain
yield of 18.46 ard./fed). Although, there was a good progress towards
increasing the total wheat yield in Egypt in last years, still there is a big
gab between the consumption and local production (32 %). The local production
is about 9.61 million tons.

Nitrogen fertilizer plays a direct effect on growth
behavior and yield quality, nitrogen is the element which stimulates
above-ground growth and produces the rich, green color characteristic of
healthy plant and increases the protein percentage. The use of nitrogen from
mineral fertilization is one of the most effective methods of overcoming the
nitrogen deficiency of soils, but the rising costs of mineral nitrogen with the
possible environmental problems attendant upon their use biological nitrogen
fixation and organic fertilization.

    Sowing date is an important factor that
affects phenophases and grain yield and its components of wheat (Kiss et al.,
2013). Longer vegetative growth period, due to sowing at optimal date, resulted
in higher radiation use efficiency and better dry matter mobilizahon (Sun et
al.,2013) and, hence, higher values for grain yield and its components (Eslami
et al 2014 and Anwar et al.,
2015). Sowing date may, alsohave an impact on quality characters of wheat
especially protein content. Late sowing of wheat compared to optimal sowing
date, severely reduced protein content of wheat grains (Hussain et al.,2015).

Materials and Methods

A study
to examine the response of four bread wheat genotypes(Sids 12 andGiza 168 from Egypt,NGB 6404 and NGB 10893 from nord
gene bank) to twoplanting dates (15 November and10 December) and three
nitrogen fertilizer levels(50,75 and 100 kg N/fed.) was conducted at the
Research Farm at Al-Kawthar, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, during 2014/2015
and 2015/2016seasons.A randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-plot
with four replications was used. The treatments were arranged as following: 1) twoplanting
dates (25 November and10 December) were
placed in the main plots: 2) four bread wheat varieties(Sids 12,Giza 168,NGB 6404V2 and NGB 10893 V3)were fixed in the
sub-plots 3) three
nitrogen fertilizer levels(50,75 and 100 kg N/fed.) were fixed in sub-sub-plot,
with plot area 10.5 m2 (3.5 m length x 3.0 m
width).Consisting of 15 rows with 20
cm apart between them.

Seeding
rate was used as recommended (60 kg/fed.).Mineral nitrogen fertilizer was added
in the form of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)was applied as per treatment in three
splits, the first one (20%) applied at sowing, the second portion (40%) added
before the first irrigation and the third portion (40%) applied one month latter. Soil of the experiment was
sandy-clay texture, with pH 7.6, electrical conductivity 0.60 dS m-1,
total nitrogen 1.68 g/kg and organic matter 2.61%. The other agriculture
practices were carried out as recommended.

Data recorded:

Data about yield and its
components (plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight and harvest index)
were recorded as recommended procedure. Biological and grain yields per feddan
were recorded by weighing all above ground dry matter of each plot, then grain
separating and weighing in kilograms and converted into ton and ard. per fed.,
respectively.

Statistical analysis:-                                            

The data was statistically
analyzed each season separately by Proc GLM procedure (SAS version 9.1,
SAS Institute 2003) as well as the least significant differences (LSD) test
among the factor means and their interactions at probability level at 5% was
used.

Results and discussion

Main effect:

Data in Table (1) revealed that
the planting Dates,varieties and Nitrogen fertilizer levels had significantly
effect on the all studied traits i.e. plant height (cm), spike length (cm), 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield (ard./fed.),biological yield
(ton/fed.)Straw yield (ton/fed.)and Harvest  index(%)in
both seasons.

1- Effect of planting
Dates:

The results in Table (1) indicated that the highest
values ofplant height (92.19 and 97.67cm), spike length (10.80 and 12.51cm),
1000-grain
weight (46.99 and 48.18g), grain yield (17.03
and 17.95ard./fed.),biological yield (5.36 and5.76ton/fed.),Straw yield (2.81 and 3.08ton/fed.) and harvestindex(48.10 and 47.06%)were recorded when wheat was sown in 10December in the 1st seasons and the2nd seasons,
respectively. Here the results
indicated that plantingat15 November subjected the wheat plants to
high soil temperature, higher than 10 December, resulting in restriction of
proper growth of wheat plants. The same conclusion was reported byAnaam (2003), Abd El-Hamid (2004), El-Afandy (2006),Seadh,andBadawi (2006), Ismail et al. (2008),Abbas
et al.(2009)and Bashir et
al.(2014).

2- Effect
of varieties:

The results in Table (1) showed that the tallest
plants (97.88and 102.32cm)andharvest index(49.93 and 48.71%)were
achieved by V2 variety in the 1st and 2nd seasons,
respectively. Moreover, the longest spikes (12.77and 14.14cm) and1000-grain
weight (52.17and 53.36)were
exhibited by V3 variety in the 1st and 2ndseasons,
respectively. Whilegrain yield (18.38and 19.17ard./fed.),biological
yield (6.06and 6.41ton/fed) andStraw yield (3.30and 3.53ton/fed.)wererealized by Sids 12 variety in the 1st and 2ndseasons,
respectively. The results mean that the Sids 12 variety was the effective
variety for achieving the maximum values of the all studied traits except the
plant height. The differences between varieties in this character might be due
to the difference between the investigated varieties in their genetical make
up. These results are in harmony with those obtained byseveral researches (Tahir et al., 2009; Gul et al., 2012; Lak et al.,
2013 and Upadhyay et al., 2015).

3-Effect ofnitrogen fertilizer levels.

Data in Table (1) revealed thatthe
tallest plants (90.83 and 96.00cm) andthe
longest spikes (11.31and 12.77cm)were exhibited by N2in the 1st
and 2ndseasons,respectively. Moreover,the maximum values of1000-grain
weight(47.85 and 48.75g),grain yield (17.81and 18.76ard/fed),biological
yield(5.83 and 6.23ton/fed.)and Straw yield (3.16 and 3.42ton/fed.)were resulted from N3 in the 1st and 2ndseasons,respectively.While,the maximum
values ofharvest index (49.24
and 47.89)were obtained by N1.Ali et al(2016)stated
thatIncreasing N fertilization level from 95.2
to 190.4 kg N/ha significantly increased grain yield and its components.These
finding, were in accordance with those reported by Ali et al. (2011),
Enayatet al. (2013) Youssef et al. (2013) and Shajaripour and
Mojaddam (2014).Sebastianoet al. (2005) and Ahmed et al.  (2011)Faizy et al(2017)

First-order
interactions:

1-Planting
Dates x Varieties (DxV) interaction:

Data in Table (2) showed that
the all studied traits had a highly significantly affected by DxV interaction
in the both seasons.

The results declared that the
tallest plants (103.99and 109.77cm) andthe maximum values of harvest  index %
(50.13  and 48.60) were
achieved by D2Xv2 in the
both seasons (Table 2) as well as the longest spikes (13.36and 14.77cm) and1000-grain
weight (52.68and 53.73 g) were obtained by D2Xv3
interaction treatments in the 1st and 2nd seasons,
respectively. Moreover, the maximum values of grain
yield(19.12
and 20.05ard/fed.),biological yield (6.19 and 6.59ton/fed.) and straw yield (3.32
and3.58ton/fed.) Were realized by D2 (Table
2). These results mean that the Sids 12 variety under drill method gave the
highest values, while the Giza 168 variety under broadcast method gave the
lowest values. Hence, the results may be due to the genetic variation between
varieties under various planting methods, reflecting weather climatic
conditions. Similar findings are stated by Soomroet al. (2009),
Rahmanet al. (2010) and Alam (2012).

2- Planting Dates x Nitrogen fertilizer levels (DxN):

Data in Table 4 showed that all
studied traits had a highly significantly affected by DxN interaction in both
seasons, except 1000-grain weight (g) in the season 2nd season.

The results showed that the
maximum values of plant height (93.69 and 99.40 cm) and 1000-grain weight (48.83
and 49.83 g)were obtained by D2XN3, as well as the longest spikes(11.23 and12.52cm)were achieved by D1XN2in the 1st and 2ndseasons,
respectively.Moreover,
the maximum values of grain yield (18.07 and 18.97ard/fed.),biological
yield (5.94 and 6.37ton/fed.) and straw yield (3.23 and 3.52ton/fed.)were exhibited by D2XN3the 1st
and 2ndseasons, respectively. While theheights value of harvest index %(50.97and 49.43)were obtained by D2XN1 1st and 2ndseasons, respectively.

3-Varieties XNitrogen
fertilizer levels (VXN):

Data in Table (2) revealed that all studied
traits had a highly significantly affected by VxN interaction in both seasons, respectively.

The
results showed that the tallest plants (100.02 and 104.37 cm)was obtained by V2XN2 in
the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectivelyMoreover, the
maximum values for spike length (13.87 and 15.20 cm) and 1000-grain weight (54.00
and 55.30 g)were recorded by V3XN2 in the 1st and 2nd
seasons, respectively.Likewise, the minimum values of grain yield (20.14and 21.04ard/fed.),biological
yield (6.98and 7.35ton/fed.) and straw yield (3.96and 4.19ton/fed).were
obtained by V1X N3in the 1st and 2nd seasons,
respectively. While,While the heights value of harvest index %( 52.56 and 50.96) were
realized by V2 x N3in the 1st and 2nd seasons,
respectively. These results are agreement with that obtained by Allam (2003)
and El-Borhamy and Gadallah (2009).

Second-order
interaction:

Planting Dates x Varieties x Nitrogen fertilizer
levels(D x VxN):

Data in Table (1) illustrate thatall studied
traits had a highly significantly affected by DxVxN interaction in the both
seasons.

The results declared that the tallest plants (106.00and
113.13cm)was exhibited by D2XV2XN2 interaction
in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively.Moreover, the
longest spikes (14.60and 16.00cm) and the maximum values of1000-grain weight(54.47
and 55.87 g)were achieved by D2XV3XN2 in
the 1st and 2ndseasons,respectively.Furthermore,the maximum values ofgrain yield (20.14and 21.04ard/fed.),biological
yield (6.98and 7.35ton/fed.) and straw yield (3.96and 4.19ton/fed)were recorded
by D2XV1XN3 interaction in the 1st and 2nd seasons,
respectively.

*According to
data of Statistical and Agricultural Economic Research Institute, Agric. Res.
Center, Egypt, 2015

x

Hi!
I'm Simon!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out