Critical Thinking

The keep and bear arms, shall not be

The Criminal Justice System consist of the three main parts,
Law Enforcement (Police Officers, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, CIA,
D.E.A), then you also have the Courts System (Attorneys, Judges, Lawyers), and
the Correction System (Jails, Prisons, and Probation and Parole). The 1st Amendment is the (congress shall make no
law respecting an establishment or religion, or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the
people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of
grievances. The 2nd Amendment is (A well-regulated militia being necessary to
the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms,
shall not be infringed. The 4th Amendment is (The right of people to be
secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, shall not be violated and
no Warrants shall be issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the
persons or thing to be seized. The 5th Amendment is (No person shall be held to
answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or
indictment of a Grand Jury except in cases arising in the land or naval forces
or in the same Militia when in actual service in time of public danger; nor
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of
life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness
against himself; nor shall deprived of life, liberty, or property without due
process of law: nor shall private property be taken for public use without just
compensation). The 6th amendment is (In all criminal prosecutions the accused
shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the
state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed which district
shall have been previously ascertained by law and to be informed of the nature
and cause of the accusation to be confronted with the witnesses against him to
have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor and to have the assistance
of counsel for his defense). The 7th Amendment is (In suits at common law
where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars the right of trial
by jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States than
according to the rules of the common. The 8th Amendment is (Excessive bail shall not be
required nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel and unusual punishments
inflicted). Three Main approaches in criminal behavior is Psychological,
Sociological, and Biological.  In the Psychological approach the
individual’s personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior
within individuals. Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional or
inappropriate mental process within the personality of the individual. It’s also
defective or abnormal mental process may have a variety of causes, a diseased
mind, inappropriate learning or improper role models and adjustments to inner
conflicts. In the sociological behavior the criminality is viewed from the
point of view of the social causes. Attempting to connect the issues of
individual criminality with the broader social structures and cultural values
of society, familial, or peer group. The biological theories within the field
of criminology attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations
through examination of individual characteristics. These theories are
categorized within asserts a paradigm called positivism (also known as
determined), which asserts that behavior including law violating behaviors are
determined by factors largely beyond individual control. Positivist theories
contrast with classical theories which critique lawmaking social stratification
and the unequal distribution of power and wealth. The Ohio Revised Code is
legislations is enacted by the laws of Ohio, and codified in the Ohio Revised
Code. State agencies promulgate rules and regulation (sometimes called
administrative law) in the register of Ohio which are in turn codified in the
Ohio Administrative Code.  The most common separates murder in two degrees
(first and second degree murder and treats voluntary and involuntary
manslaughter as separate crimes that do not constitute murder. First degree
murders any intentional murder that is willful and premediated with malice
aforethought. Individual’s crime fit into one and only one category. Theft is a
bit different in that the same crime will change categories based upon the
value or the item stolen. Burglary is generally entering a premises with the
intent to commit a crime therein. At common law we were very concerned about
the safety of people in their homes. In an organized step by step approach
scene documentation is one of the stages in the proper processing of a crime
scene. The final results of a properly documented crime scene are the ability
of others to take our finished produced to use in either reconstructing the
scene or the chain of events in an incident and our court room presentation. In
documenting the scene there are actually 3 functions or methods used to
properly document the crime scene. Those methods consist of which will
ultimately be used in constructing a final report crime scene photographs and a
diagram or sketch. Consistently between each of these functions is paramount.
The purpose of a police report is to provide an accurate written account of a
police officer’s observations during the investigation of a criminal. A police
report can only be written by the officer or officers involved in the
investigation of an incident.  Evidence is the available body facts or information
indicating whether a belief of proposition is true or valid. Analogical
Evidence is not the kind of evidence you’d useful for increasing credibility by
drawing parallels when there isn’t enough information to prove something in a
workplace investigation analogical evidence uses a comparison of things that
are similar to draw an analogy. Anecdotal Evidence isn’t used in court but can
sometimes help in workplace investigation to get a better picture of an issue.
The biggest problem with this kind of evidence is that it is often “cherry
picked” to present only anecdotes that support a particular conclusion,
consider it with skepticism and in combination with other more reliable kinds
of evidence. Circumstantial Evidence is also known as indirect evidence; this
type of evidence is used to infer something based on a series of facts separate
from the fact the argument is trying to prove. It requires deduction of facts
from other facts that can be proven and while not considered to be strong
evidence, it can be relevant in a workplace investigation which has a different
burden of proof than a criminal investigation. Demonstrative Evidence is an
object or document is considered to be demonstrates a fact. It’s a common and
reliable kind of evidence are photographs video and audio recording charts. In
a workplace investigation this could be an audio recording of someone’s
harassing behavior or a photograph offensive graffiti. In the process of crime
scene investigation, this approach is not only common sense but also vital. To
properly analyze and interpret any crime scene, certain basic steps must be
followed in ordered to create a sense of begging and a sensible conclusion to
the examination. The strip method requires that crime scene personnel walk a
path from one end of the crime scene over to the other side of the room or area
and then return in the direction from which he or she first started. The wheel
method employs the use of several crime scene personnel or searchers. Starting
in the middle of an imaginary circle each investigator moves in a direction
straight out from the center or hub of the wheel much like the spokes of a
bicycle wheel. The spiral method has the investigators examining the area for
evidence in an outward direction.  The
zone method breaks the crime scene area into squares. For example, a living
room can be divided into four equal sections and examined by an individual
investigator. The chain of custody is the order in which a piece of criminal
evidence should be handled by persons investigating a case specify, the
unbroken trial of accountability that ensures the physical security of samples
data and records in a criminal investigators.

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