Critical Thinking

Ten A Passed 8,494 ? 42,89 ° 0,000

Ten different impedances were tested and successfully passed the test as shown in the results from the Test Universe report. As expected, all impedances bellow the limit of the Zone 1 tripped within the tripping time of the Zone 1, whereas the impedances above the limit of the Zone 1 tripped within the tripping time of the Zone 2. Nominal tripping time for Zone 1 is instantaneous, and for Zone 2 equals 350 ms. In both cases, for every selected impedance, there was a certain time delay within the permitted tolerances which illustrates the real-life situations in power systems.Test results consist of the value and the angle of the impedance, nominal and activating time of the relay, time deviation and the decision of the testing as presented in the following table. Shot Test: Fault Type L1-E

| Z |

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Phi

t nom

t act.

Dev.

ITest

Result

5,869 ?

85,00 °

0,000 s

33,60 ms

33,60 ms

2,000 A

Passed

6,062 ?

74,86 °

0,000 s

34,20 ms

34,20 ms

2,000 A

Passed

6,602 ?

63,76 °

0,000 s

34,00 ms

34,00 ms

2,000 A

Passed

7,459 ?

50,00 °

0,000 s

34,00 ms

34,00 ms

2,000 A

Passed

8,494 ?

42,89 °

0,000 s

34,30 ms

34,30 ms

2,000 A

Passed

6,575 ?

94,58 °

350,0 ms

384,1 ms

9,743 %

2,000 A

Passed

6,596 ?

85,00 °

350,0 ms

383,7 ms

9,629 %

2,000 A

Passed

6,834 ?

73,55 °

350,0 ms

384,3 ms

9,8 %

2,000 A

Passed

7,263 ?

64,47 °

350,0 ms

383,5 ms

9,571 %

2,000 A

Passed

8,890 ?

46,83 °

350,0 ms

383,8 ms

9,657 %

2,000 A

Passed

         Furthermore, if the impedances pass the test, they become visually green in the graph (Figure xx).Further fault analysis results become available as well, such as fault physical quantities. These test results point out the voltage and the current of the fault, and consequently show that the fault had occurred in Phase One.

 
 
Fault Quantities (natural):

VL1:

50,72 V

0,00 °

 

VL2:

57,74 V

-120,00 °

 

VL3:

57,74 V

120,00 °

 

IL1:

2,000 A

-24,31 °

 

IL2:

0,000 A

n/a

 

IL3:

0,000 A

n/a

 

VFault:

50,72 V

0,00 °

 

IFault:

2,000 A

-24,31 °

 

 

 

 

 

Additional graphs of fault voltage and current, as well as tripping time of the relay, are available for analysis.

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