Critical Thinking

Simsek bark beetles and relation between certain tree

Simsek
et. al. (2006) investigated the damage of bark beetles and relation between
certain tree parameters in Uludag fir (Abies
nordmanniana). It was determined that most common and harmful bark beetles
were Cryphalus piceae Ratz and Ips curvidens
Germ in Uludag fir for dominated stands of 50-100 age and 50-40 cm DBH. After
the regression analysis carried out it was determined that there were
statistically significant (p 0.50)
relationship   between DBH, height and crown diameter
variables in Uludag firs.

Brockerhoff
et al. (2006) worked out interception
frequency of exotic and ambrosia beetle and relationship with establishment in
New Zealand and World wide. Over 1500 interceptions were recorded at New Zealand
borders between 1950 and 2000. Among the 103 species were Dedroctonus ponderosa, Ips
typographus and other high risk
species, but actual arrival probably included many more species. Interceptions
were primarily associated with dunnage, case wood, and sown timber, and
originated from 59 countries mainly from Europe, Australia,
North Asia, North America, New Zealand
and United States.
Interception data were highly correlated and 7 out of 10 most intercepted
species were shared.

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Parker
et al. (2006) investigated
interactions among fire, insects and pathogens in coniferous forests of the
interior Western United States and Canada. They found that natural and
recurring disturbances caused by fire, native forest insects and pathogens have
interacted for millenia to create and maintain forests dominated by seral or
pioneering species of conifers in the interior regions of the Western United
States and Canada.

Eickwort
et al. (2006) investigated about Ips engraver beetles in the southern United States.
Ips beetles usually colonize only
those trees that are already stressed, declining or fallen due to other
environmental or biotic factors. Ips also
readily colonizes cut logs and slashes and is attracted to fresh Pine odours.

Martin
et al. (2006) worked out effects of
bark beetle outbreaks on avian biodiversity in British Columbia Interior. They
reported that mountain pine beetle and fire are the two major natural
disturbance types structuring mature conifer stands in the interior of the
province. The temporal changes in value and availability of dead and dying trees
and their associated insect fauna are expected to result in stand–level
variation in wild life populations. They reported that insect outbreaks
initially result in improved conditions for cavity users and many other birds
that feed on insects in dead and dying trees.

Bentz
(2006) investigated mountain pine beetle population sampling inferences from
Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages. He reported that beetles
caught in pheromone traps during the main emergence period from infested trees
had greater whole-body lipids compared to beetles caught early and late in
flight season. They also reported that pheromone traps disproportionately
sample mountain pine beetle population and that natural pheromone sources may
influence the number and timing of beetle traps caught in synthetically baited
traps.

Mandelshtan
(2006) identified new and poorly known species of bark beetles from Middle
Asia. Pityotrichus turkmenicus, the
first palaearctric representative of the genus, considered earlier to be
exclusively American is described from Kopet Dagh. Placement of cyananchophagus cornutus Axentjev, a
species of the mono typical genus with previously uncertain taxonomic position
in the Scolytidae in the tribe Dryocoetini
is confirmed, where it is close to the genus Triotenus Woll.

Hulcr
et al. (2007) worked on host specificity of ambrosia and platypodidae in a New Guinea
forests. They reported that bark and ambrosia beetles are crucial for woody
biomass decomposition in tropical forests world wide. A total of 81742 beetles
from 74 species were reared, 67 of them were identified. Local species richness
of bark and ambrosia beetles were estimated at 80-92 species. Local diversity
of both bark and ambrosia beetles is not driven by the local diversity of trees
in tropical forests, since ambrosia beetles display no host specificity and
bark beetles are species poor and restricted to a few plant families.

Dobbertin
et al. (2007) worked out that linking
increase drought stress to Scots pine mortality and bark beetle infestation and
reported that incidents of beetle-related pine mortality correlated positively
with spring and summer temperature, and with the tree-ring based mortality
index, but not with drought index. The number of advisory cases on the other
hand correlated slightly with summer drought index and temperature, but very
high with tree-ring based mortality index. The tree-ring mortality index and
observed tree mortality increased in years fallowing drought. This was
confirmed by the beetle emergence from field trees. Following dry summers more
than twice as many trees are colonized by beetles than following wet summers.

Buhroo
and Lakatos (2007) investigated
biological characters of Scolytus nitidus
and reported that this shot-hole borer overwinters in larval stage on apple
trees in Kashmir. At emergence the adults fly
to suitable trees and undergo maturation, feeding for 4-6 days the female lays
usually 52 eggs on the average. The eggs hatch in 5-7 days. The larvae have 5
instars and complete their development in 38-50 days. The larvae pupate for 6-8
days and finally emerge to attack new trees. The adults live for 45-60 days and
total life span for this species ranges from 97-124 days.

Jenkins
et al. (2008) worked on bark beetles,
fuels, fire and implications for forest management in the Intermountain west.
Bark beetles-caused tree mortality in conifer forests affects the quantity and
quality of forests fuels and has long been assumed to increase fire hazard and
potential fire behavior.

Peverieri
et al. (2008) studied life cycle of Tomicus destruens in a pine forest of Central Italy. They found that adults
never showed flight activity in summer, nor did adults reproduce on pines at
that time. Tomicus destruens
completes one generation per year, it remains to be seen whether some of the
beetles emerging at the beginning of spring are able to start a second
generation in the same year.

Smith
et al. (2009) investigated life
history of secondary bark beetle Pseudips
mexicanus (Coleopteran:
Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in lodge pole pine in British Columbia. They reported that P. mexicanus in lodge pole pine was
found to be polygynous. Galleries were shorter, offspring smaller and the eggs
laid per niche and the potential progeny fewer than in populations from California and Guatemala. Development from the
time of female attack to emergence of adult offspring took less than 50 days at
26.5°C and accumulated heat required to complete the life cycle was determined
to be 889.2 degree days above 8.5°C indicating that in the northern portion of
its range P. mexicanus is univoltine.

Negron
et al. (2009) investigated mortality
in a drought affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona USA and reported that
extensive ponderosa pine mortality  is associated
with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae) population occurred in Arizona from (2001 to 2004). They also
observed that pine mortality was in 10-35cm diameter class which comprise much
of the increase in the density over the past century as a result of fire
suppression and grazing practices.

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