Critical Thinking

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symptoms and complications of liver cirrhosis
Itching and abdominal pain
Itching and pain in the abdomen can be
managed by taking medicines which help in relieving these symptoms.
However, these should only be taken under medical supervision.
Portal hypertension
Beta blockers or nitrates are
prescribed for treating portal hypertension. Beta blockers slow down
the heart and also lower the blood pressure whereas nitrates help in
widening the blood vessels, thereby allowing more blood to flow
through he veins.
Beta blockers are used to decrease the
pressure in varices and decrease th probability of bleeding.
Immediate upper endoscopy is required if bleeding occurs in stomach
or esophagus. Endoscope can be used to place a special band around
the varices which causes the cells to die and fall off.

Edema and ascites
Diuretics are used for removing fluid
from the abdomen to treat edema and ascites. Antibiotics might be
prescribed for treating any bacterial infections in the abdominal

Hepatic encephalopathy
it refers to neuropsychiatric
abnormalities that occur in the brain of people suffering from liver
problems. It is treated by cleansing the bowel with lactulose, which
is a laxative. Antibiotics might also be given along with lactulose
to treat any bacterial infection. It improves as other complications
of liver cirrhosis improve.
Hepatorenal syndrome
Liver cirrhosis patients who develop
renal symptoms are made to undergo regular dialysis to filter waste
and extra fluids. Medicines are also prescribed for improving blood
flow through kidneys.
Bisphospyhates are prescribed for
improving bone density.
Gallstones and bile duct stones
Surgery and endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography might be used to remove gallstones and bile
duct stones, respectilvely.
Liver cancer
Liver cancer screening test is
performed every 6 to 12 months fro early detection of cancer.
Treatment of cancer is more effective when cancer is diagnosed at an
early stage.
Liver transplant
Liver transplant is suggested when
liver cirrhosis leads to liver failure or the treatment for
complications arising due to cirrhosis are ineffective.
In this, the diseased liver is removed
from the patient’s body and is replaced with a healthy whole liver or
part of the liver from a donor.