Critical Thinking

Multiple tools and longitudinal research designs. Since the

                Multiple intelligence theory has
witnessed a great amount of attention from EFL/ESL researchers who believed
that MI would allow practitioners to integrate individual differences of learners
into language pedagogy. Multiple intelligence preferences are mostly determined
by self-reporting inventories developed by such researchers as Teele (2000),
Armstrong (1999), and Silver, Strong and Perini (2000). Even though, Gardner
(1993) put emphasis on the importance of assessing each Intelligence with the
material specific to each intelligence type. Such assessment demand complex
tools and longitudinal research designs. Since the feasibility could not be
meeting, questionnaires assessing multiple intelligence profiles are frequently
used by researchers (McMahon, Rose, & Parks, 2004). Loori (2005)
administered TIMI inventory to ESL learners in the United States to identify
the multiple intelligences profiles of male and female students. The results
revealed that there were significant differences between males and females in
relation to their preferences of intelligences. Male students revealed a strong
logical-mathematical intelligence while the female students were in favor of
intrapersonal intelligence. Interpersonal, logical-mathematical, and linguistic
intelligences were found to be the dominant preferences among students.

         Other studies made an
attempt to investigate the relationship between intelligence and   different aspects of language learning .Wesche, Edwards and Wells (1982) and
Skehan (1991) investigated the relationship between intelligence and second
aptitude . They revealed that intelligence and aptitude were associated. Language
aptitude involved certain components of intelligence which were related to
learning contexts (Skehan, 1991). Studies on multiple intelligences in second
language acquisition are mostly on the application of theories to teaching although
Gardner did not suggest  any application of
his theory to foreign language teaching. Christison and Kennedy (1999) shed
light on the implementation of MI theory in ESL/EFL pedagogy showing an
interesting  results in students’
learning. Applications of MI theory to second language learning were probed by
Haley in a quasi-experimental research (2004). Applying multiple intelligence
theory(MIT) involved instructional strategies, curriculum as well as development,
and assessment. Haley gathered both qualitative and quantitative data from
different schools in six countries . 650 student’s ingrates K-12 and 23 English
as Second Language (ESL) and foreign language teachers took part in the study
.the participants achievements before and after multiple intelligence (MI )application
were compared .The findings  showed  that student achievement was enhanced after
MI application. Haley (2004) concluded that application of MI theory to second
language and foreign language learning has a positive influence on both
students and teachers.

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           In a similar vein, Kornhaber
(2004) carried out a study. He found that Two out of four areas involving
curriculum, assessment, school structure, and pedagogy have shown a progress.
Kornhaber (2004) also stated that The Project on Schools Using MI Theory
(SUMIT), which took 3,5 years and involved about 41 schools that had been
implementing MI theory for more than 3 years. A detailed report on practices in
classrooms and frameworks in schools was provided by SUMIT. The majority of
students’ test scores, behaviors, parental involvement, and success of students
with learning disabilities improved .Eisner (2004) examined whether MI theory
corresponds to current educational policies. Focusing mainly on education
policies in American schools, current policies required uniformity in both
curriculum and assessment .yet, she claimed that current policies do not value
individual differences and their uniqueness and they do assist little
prediction in real life performance. By examining students performances in
different areas and valuing their abilities, a curriculum that is based on MI
theory can be established. Thus, learning can be enhanced (Eisner, 2004).

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