Critical Thinking

Leadership, study conducted by Ross & Gray (2006)

      Leadership,
in whichever form it embraces, has as essential purpose to ensure & continue
the school improvement which has to do with the quality of teaching; the most
influential factor of students’ achievement. It is obvious though that the
quality & the leadership effectiveness is understood & evaluated in
correspondence with regards to teachers’ motivational & effectiveness( Fullan,2001).
According to (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006) one of the main leadership practice
has to do with the teachers’ empowerment which is strongly related to the central
goal of the school; students’ learning. The development of the employees’
performance is considerably vital aim which the leader tries to attain through
some actions taking into consideration individuals’ beliefs, values,
motivations & skills. Structuring a definite vision & give
instructions, they provide teachers with a strong impetus to develop their
performance. Setting a common point that clarifies the roles, the objectives
& the preferred expectations from the teachers’ act they enhance teachers’
efficacy in the classroom. A study conducted by Ross & Gray (2006) concluded
that transformative leadership qualities are essential for school effectiveness.
Kochamba & Murray (2008), in their study on critical leadership skills
needed by principals for the achievement of school effectiveness found
technical, human relations, conceptual and transformative leadership skills
critical for the achievement of school effectiveness.  According to Richter, Lewis & Hagar
(2012) revealed that transformational, administrative & behavioural management
qualities are important tools needed by principals for achieving school
effectiveness. The study was hinged on the path-goal theory of leadership by
House (1971) which postulates that for leaders to be effective, they must have
the skill to clarify the path to successful attainment of goals for followers;
they must also, be able to eradicate obstacles on the path to achievement of managerial
goals for the followers. To clarify the path, the principal/headmaster must
know the processes involved & have the vision on how to achieve the goals.
In order to eradicate the obstacles from followers’ path to achieve goals, the
principal must have the ability to know when & how to eliminate these
obstacles.

     Hoppock (1935) was among the first to report
job satisfaction level of teachers concluded that job satisfaction is related
to mental health. Since then, researchers have shown profound consideration to
the issue & different logical studies have been undertaken. Blum & Naylor,
(1968) stated that job satisfaction is regarded as a generally favorable or
unfavorable attitude resulting from specific work areas, such as job factors
and individual characteristics. Hoy & Miskel (1987) stated that job
satisfaction is viewed as a crucial factor as to the general efficiency of an
organization. The progress towards human relations sheds extra light on the significance
of the morale & development of the work conditions for the employees of
organizations & institutions. Abdualkhaliq (1982) revealed that the
majority of the job satisfaction research has been aimed towards lower level
employees, adding that it is limited with regard to looking at managers,
technicians & professionals. Job satisfaction is considered extremely significant
issue within the educational context, especially for school head teachers. Frank,
(1986) concluded that job satisfaction is mixture of psycho-socio &
environmental conditions which helps a person in the satisfaction of his job.

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   Job satisfaction is a multivariate human
attitude defined as employees’ feelings about their jobs in general (Morrison,
Jones, & Fuller, (1997). As Thompson et
al. (1997) stated that synthesis of research findings regarding job
satisfaction in educational organizations, job satisfaction has been as the
criterion variable of interest, as one of a collection of criterion variables,
or as a predictor variable in regard to another criterion of interest.   According to (Blood, et al. 2002) Job satisfaction is one of the most widely researched
topics in the areas of organizational behavior and education. Raza, et al. (2015) in their study revealed a
positive relationship between four intrinsic facets of job satisfaction that is
creativity, job security, responsibility & achievement with job
satisfaction. As Tella, Ayeni & Popoola, (2007) found that job satisfaction
has a core relationship with several attitudes about the job characteristic,
compensation & benefits, social status social security, promotion,
technological challenges & respect. Ali, et al. (2012) revealed that most of the head teachers at elementary
level were slightly satisfied with respect to their promotion, formulation,
awareness & implementation of education policy & salary packages. They
also found that head teachers were satisfied with respect to factors of job
i.e. ability utilization, achievement from job, administrative activities,
authority, creativity, independence in administration and teaching, moral
values and other factors. Ghazi & Khan (2008) in their findings revealed
that moral values & activity were the two aspects of job for which head
teachers showed higher satisfaction while compensation, working conditions,
social status, & school practices and policies  were the factors to which head teachers
showed low satisfaction. Nguyen et al (2013)
revealed a positive relationship between reward & recognition, satisfaction
with supervision & job characteristics.

   Nations
across the globe are spending huge amount on education and for improving management
in education. Education can help in increasing the production & it may be
also helpful in staff’s satisfaction even as creating & improving the relations
personally & finally output & efficiency (Khallili, 2004). Managers or
head teachers play a significant character as they manage the subordinates,
make mutual association, and inspire staff. All of these activities are done to
meet the organizational needs and achieve the organizational goals (Alagheband,
1992).  The aim of management knowledge and
all organizational theories is to increase productivity or organizational
performance. Contingency theory is one of those models used to show the
performance of groups since it is the merely single model by which the
performance or success of group must be measured (Khalili, 1993). As Teiman (2010)
surveyed in Michigan University about defensive organizations, hospitals and
governmental organizations to find out some set of leadership characteristics
including job satisfaction, absenteeism, profitability and efficiency. He found
that leadership with more effectiveness has a supportive and enforcing behavior
and individual decision-making is common and more acceptable performance as
well. Muller &
Stuan (2008) surveyed effectiveness of
education-oriented units in Frankfurt training colleges based on Fiedler Contingency
model and found effectiveness of task-based leadership is better than
relationship-based.

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