Critical Thinking

Joseph estate in Hungary Orchestra of twenty-five performers

Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)IntroExtremely popular during lifetimeSymphonies and string quartetsEarly lifeBorn near ViennaChoirboy at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in ViennaStudied singing, harpsichord, and violinVoice changed and then did free lance Around 1757, he became music director for Count Morzin First symphonies during this timeThe Esterházy courtEsterházys, Hungarian noble familyPrince Paul Anton Esterházy hired Haydn in 1761.Nikolaus Esterházy succeeded his brother Paul in 1762 and became Haydn’s principal patron for nearly thirty years EsterházaIn 1766, the Esterházy family moved from Eisenstadt in Austria to Esterháza, a remote country estate in Hungary Orchestra of twenty-five performers Weekly shindidsHaydn’s isolation may have been what set his music apart from other music of the time. Prince Nikolaus died in 1790 and Haydn -> Vienna.LondonJohann Peter Salomon brought him to London – 1791 and 1795.Last twelve symphonies were done here.He was a hitHaydn’s StyleHayden was relatively innovative for the timeSources of Haydn’s style The galant styleThe expressiveness of the empfindsam (sensitive) styleBaroque counterpointGeneric conventionsString Quartet in E-flat Major, Op. 3, No. 2 (The Joke), finale (NAWM 104)rondo form -ABACA.binary opening theme = playfulTwo episodes and no new materialProlongations are commonEXAGGERATEDSymphoniesGeneral106 symphonies aboutHis symphonies generally have four movements – standard nowEarly symphonies, 1757-67Count Morzintwo oboes, two horns, and stringsMost of these are in three movements.Themes were broken up and combined over and over30 with Esterházy family (1761-67).Bigger ensemble (flute)Very different from one anotherSymphonies of 1791-1794 – LondonOften considered his bestDistinctive qualities (page 533)”More daring harmonies””Intensified rhythmic drive””Memorable thematic inventions””Expanded orchestra: trumpets and timpani are standard, and clarinets frequently appear””The woodwinds and string bass are more independent.””The effect is spacious and brilliant.”Haydn had to be different from rival series with Ignaz Pleyel (1757-1831).A fortissimo crash on a weak beat in the slow movement of Symphony No. 94 gave this work the nickname Surprise.Folk tunesOther Instrumental MusicString quartetsConsidered the first master of this formintended for amateurs mostlyConversationalThe first quartets “resemble divertimentos” Op. 1 + 2The next eighteen quartets, Opp. 9 (ca. 1770), 17 (1771), and 20 (1772), established the four-movement structureA number of the Op. 20 quartets are in minor keys and exhibit Sturm und Drang qualities.Three quartets from Op. 20 end with fugues.Opus 33 was composed in a “quite new and special way.”The works are lighthearted After Op. 33, Haydn composed thirty-four quartets.Meant for a bigger hall and were more seriousKeyboard sonatas + triosAmateurs usuallyVocal MusicOperasHayden liked his vocal works more than instrumental, but he is now known for his instrumental works primarily.Esterháza is where his opera beganArmida  BIG ariasNot usually performed todayMassesHayden combines traditional and more symphonic writing styles in masses. Haydn’s OratoriosInspired by HandelMajor works.The Creation (1798),The Seasons (1801)German and English

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