Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTION Data is the basic unit in statistical

INTRODUCTION

Data can be defined as
the quantitative or qualitative values of a variable. Data is plural of datum
which literally means to give or something given. Data is thought to be the
lowest unit of information from which other measurements and analysis can be done.
Data can be numbers, images, words, figures, facts or ideas. Data in itself
cannot be understood and to get information from the data onemust interpret it
into meaningful information. There are various methods of interpreting data.
Data sources are broadly classified into primary and secondary data. Different
types of data are quantitative and qualitative data.

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Data is one of the most
important and vital aspect of any research studies. Researchers conducted in
different fields of study  can be
different in methodology but every research is based data which is analyzed and
interpreted to get information. Data is the basic unit in statistical studies.
Statistical information like census, population variables, health statistics,
and road accidents records are all developed from data.

CONTENT

SOURCES
OF DATA

                               
i.           
PRIMARY
DATA

Primary data means original data that
has been collected specially for the purpose in mind. It means someone
collected the data from the original source first hand. Data collected this way
is called primary data.

Primary dat has not been published yet
and is more reliable, authentic and objective. Primary data has not been
changed or altered by human beings; therefore its validity is greater than
secondary data.

 

v FORMS OF PRIMARY DATA

·       
SURVEY
:Survey is most commonly used method in
socialsciences, management, marketing and psychology to some extent.

·       
QUESTIONNAIRE
:Questionnaire is the most commonly used method in
survey. Questionnaires are a list of questions either an open-ended or
close-ended for which the respondent give answers. It can be conducted via
telephone, mail, live in a public area, or in an institute, through electronic
mail or through fax and other methods.

·       
INTERVIEW
: Interview is a face –to- faceconversation with the
respondent.It is slow, expensive, and they take people away from their regular
jobs, but they allow in-depth questioning and follow-up questions.

·       
OBSERVATIONS
:Observations can be done while letting the observing
person know thathe is being observedorwithoutletting him know. It can also be
made in natural settigsas well asin artificially created environment.

 

v ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY
DATA

·       
Data interpretation is better.

·       
Targeted issues are addressed.

·       
Efficient spending for information.

·       
Decency of data.

·       
Addresses specific research issues.

·       
Greater control.

·       
Proprietary issues.

v DISADVANTAGES OF
PRIMARY DATA

·       
High cost.

·       
Time consuming.

·       
Inaccurate Feed-backs.

·       
More number of resources is required.

                            
ii.           
SECONDARY
DATA

Secondary data is the
data that has been already collected by and readily available fomother sources.
When we use statisticalmethod with primary data from another purposefor our
purpose we refer to it as secondary data. It means that one purpose’s primary
data is another purpose’s secondary data.So that are more quickly obtainable
than the primary data.

These secondary data
may be obtained from many sources including literature, industry surveys,
complications fromcomputerized databases and information systems, and
computerized or mathematical models of environmental processes.

v FORMS OF SECONDARY DATA

·       
PUBLISHED
PRINTED SOURCES

There are varieties of published printed
sources.Their credibility depends on many factors.

·       
BOOKS

Books provide an insight on how much
work has already been done on the same topic.

·       
JOURNALS/PERIODICALS

Journals provide up-to-date information
on survey topics.

·       
MAGAZINES/NEWSPAPERS

It is useful only for the political
related studies as it is not always 
reliable.

·       
PUBLISHED
ELECTRONIC SOURCES

It includes E-jornals General websites,
Weblogs etc.

v ADVANATGES OF SECONDARY
DATA

·       
Inexpensive.

·       
Easily accessible.

·       
Immediately available.

·       
Provides comparison.

v DISADVANTAGES OF
SECONDARY DATA

·        
Accuracy of secondary data is not known.

·        
Incomplete information.

·        
Data may be outdated.

 

TYPES OF DATA

A.   
QUANTITATIVE
DATA

Quantitative
data is collective data that can be measured by numbers.The resulting data are
set of numbers. It is also known as measurement data.

Eg
:Cholestrol level, height, weight, Age, SAT score etc.

B.     QUALITATIVE
DATA

Qualitative
is data that is are words and cannot be divided by numbers. The resulting data
are merely labels or categories.

Eg:
Hair color, race, smoking status etc.

 

 

CONCLUSION

Data are facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.It is factual information
(such as measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion,
or calculation. It is helpful for finding a soution or intensity of a problem
and also for further refernce.

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