Critical Thinking

Impact institutes and universities. ARPANET (Advance Research Project

Impact
of Modern Information Technology on Human Life

It is a technology that
combines computing with high speed communication links using computers,
storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructures and processes
to create, process, store, secure and exchange data in any electronic form.
That means data can be carried in the form of text, sound, images, video etc.
from one place to another all over the world (global village). Information
technology can be abbreviated as IT.
The term information technology was first coined by Harvard Business Review. IT industry has evolved from the mid-20th
century and now it is one of most important fields or technologies.

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The interconnection of
computers enables people to send and receive any type of information. Computers
of the world can be interconnected with one another through a large network of
networks i.e., Internet. Due to invention of internet the Globe is referred as “Global Village” as it is an ocean of
knowledge. In 1960, ARPANET was designed by US-Defense department in alliance
with research institutes and universities. ARPANET (Advance Research Project Agency
Network) was a network connecting a small number of users i.e., there were only
four hosts. In the beginning, it was used for military purpose. Then in 1989,
NSF (National Science Foundation) established a network by connecting five hosts
(five supercomputing centres that are available to researchers for academic
purposes. This NSF network was named as NSFnet. In 1995, internet became
available for public. WWW, E-mail, telnet, File-Transfer Facility, Gopher, Chat
groups, Intranet, Extranet are the practices of Internet. Internet is also used
as a source of information technology.

Data that is carried
through information technology can be converted into digital form through
digital convergence. The digital convergence is the technological blend of several
industries through some electronic devices that exchange information between
them.

Talking about modern
scenario of information technology, modern scenario means the modern situation
of the information technology. The base of information technology is computing and high-speed communication. High speed communication can be achieved
through satellite, fibre optic, mobile phones, fax-machines, E-commerce,
M-commerce etc.

IT brought a revolution
in human life and it is called computer revolution, information revolution,
multi-media revolution, communication revolution or internet revolution. Now a
days, computer revolution is going on, flooring the way for a new information
phase. Personal computers and laptops are being extensively used in homes,
offices and other working places for various purposes. The foremost
applications of computers are AI
(Artificial Intelligence), web based
applications, E-commerce, M-commerce, computer animation, multi-media
and hypermedia, distributed applications.

Artificial intelligence
is used to develop machines having human like abilities such as learning,
hearing and seeing etc. These machines can be digital computers or computer-controlled
robots. Since the invention of digital computer, it has been determined that it
can perform various complex tasks with great efficiency. Despite much advances
in computer processing speed and memory capacity, still computers cannot
replace humans completely over broader arenas or in tasks that require everyday
knowledge. In contrast, some programmes have accomplished the performance level
of humans in doing certain specific tasks so in this restricted sense, AI has
found its applications as diverse as computer search engines, medical diagnosis
and voice or handwriting recognition etc. 
Human intellect can not be characterized by a single attribute rather it
is categorized by combining many diverse aptitudes. Research in AI has focused
primarily on the following components of the intelligence: learning, reasoning,
perception, problem resolving and using language. Several different forms of learning can be applied to
artificial intelligence. To reason is to draw interpretations appropriate to any situation. Solving a problem,
predominantly in artificial intelligence (AI), may be considered as a
systematic exploration through an array of possible activities to reach some
predefined goal or solution. Basically, perception means to simply observe the
situation. A language is a scheme of signs that have some meaning
by convention. In this way, language needs not be limited to the spoken words.
It is comparatively easy to write computer programs that seem able to respond effortlessly in a human language to the queries
and declarations. Although none of these programs certainly understands language,
they may reach the point where their command of a language is indistinguishable
from that of a normal human.

Web based applications is type of software applications that is
available on the Web. The user can use it by connecting to the Internet from
any computer using a standard browser. For example, if there is an application
installed in a computer i.e., Microsoft Word (word processing software commonly
used), it is not a web based application as every time it can be used without
accessing it through Internet. On
the other hand, Google Docs is another word-processing application but operators perform all
the functions using a web browser as an alternative of using software installed
on their computer. This means that it is an example of web-based application.
Web based applications are accessible anywhere, easily customisable, available
for a variety of devices, easier to install and maintain, pliable to increased workload
and secured to much extent. These applications provide humans with numerous
advantages as in business or any other field, consequently making life easier.

E-commerce (electronic commerce) is a process of performing business
over the Internet.
It has grown up immensely in the previous decade, making life more
convenient for consumers. E-commerce have provided many new opportunities for
doing business and banking,
insurance, advertising and warehousing. Even transference transactions were
also completed using e-commerce. All cannot contend with huge
trades like Amazon or eBay, but anyone anywhere in the world can open its own
business or trade online through Internet by establishing online stores within
a matter of minutes. Many other small local stores have found a new way of
doing business by trading online and selling their products to the customers.

M-commerce is a process
of buying goods and services using mobile phone. M-commerce, as the name
indicates, is mobile commerce. The cumulative usage of mobile phones and
telecommunication devices represented as another precursor to change, and this
change gave rise to mobile commerce. It is the newer concept of e-commerce as it
uses mobile devices for example; smartphones, PDAs, tablets and it depends
mainly on an Internet connection provided by wireless telecommunication
networks. An additional Internet connection or Internet device is required in
ecommerce as it chiefly involves the use of computers while m-commerce does not
have the same case because these devices come with their own connection to the
Internet using different networks. As mobile devices are smaller and easily
portable, users can very easily conduct commercial activities anywhere at any
place even there where is no electricity. Its usage is becoming more and more
popular since users are given more options and almost no limitations. The most common goods and facilities on mobile commerce are mobile
banking, mobile browsing and purchase, mobile’s content purchase and delivery,
mobile ATM (Automated Teller Machine), money transfers through mobile,
information and location based services, advertising etc. All these features of
M-commerce provide numerous advantages that is making Human life easier day by
day but it is not perfect. It is then up to users of m-commerce to deal with
the issues accordingly. Mobile users have some security and privacy issues using
this technology as they do not have much trust whether they are protected or
the contents that they are downloading is completely safe to use or not. User
are protective especially when it comes to sharing personal things or
information and payment details. Users must make sure that they have a website
friendly with mobile. There are businesses that think if their websites are
viewable on the small screens of mobile devices, that is enough.

Computer animation is another application that is vastly making progress
in the field of modern information technology. It is a process to create moving
images using computer. Computer animation technology is being used mostly by
people who are concerned with media or entertainment industry. Initially,
animations were started as 2D (on paper) but when industry progressed,
computers were introduced and animations automatically became 3D. Computer
animations are being used in different industries which are not linked or
concerned with media or entertainment sector. For example, medical animations, architectural
visualizations, mechanical animations, forensic animations and educational
animations.

Multimedia is a collection of graphics, animations audio and video
presented by computer. These are available to public as any computer can be
connected to another through Internet and that’s what the information
technology basically is. Hypermedia is a process of creating links to files
that contain photographs, audio, video and text etc. and this can be achieved
by following the basic principle of information technology. This enables people
to get connected on a common platform i.e., Internet.

Distributed computing is a process of running single task on multiple
computers and modern information technology makes it possible in an effective
way.

Concluding
from the aspects stated above, information technology
has allowed people to complete more tasks in less time and with less
energy. Technology has had profound effects on human lifestyle throughout
human history. As the rate of progress increases, society have dealt with both
the good and bad implications.

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