Critical Thinking

CHAPTER protecting our environment through proper waste management.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONA. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYNowadays, we are suffering environmental such as global warming, flash floods and etc. One of the causes of these problems is the misbehavior of the people towards waste management. Some people are reckless in throwing their garbage. They do not think of the possible results of their actions on the environment as well as on health.The song entitled “Kapaligiran” by ASIN, it simply implies that we need to do something to help our sick environment due to improper waste disposal, illegal logging, coastal littering and etc. Thus, proper waste management is one key to make it possible.What is Waste Management?             Waste Management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. It is a distinct practice from resources recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gas or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management.Waste management practices can diverge for developed and developing country, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually is the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national and international controls. Every individual should take the responsibility of managing their wastes properly. Public awareness campaigns are essential tools for environment protection. Thus, there is really a need to encourage the people to be part of this objective, protecting our environment through proper waste management. In regard of this, our study entitled “Waste Management Practices of Senior High School Students in Samal District” aims to know how the Senior Students in Samal District manage their wastes as well as to identify the materials they are using in managing their waste. Furthermore, this study is not just a study but it also helps the community through conducting clean-up Drive in the said district.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKManagement of Solid waste is one of the greater challenges for development all over the world. It is not only because Solid Waste Management impact on the environment or health, but poor implementation of Solid Waste Management hinders the nation’s progress towards Sustainable Development. Accordingly, there is a need for more comprehensive strategies for Solid Waste Management within development processes. It is important to improve Solid Waste Management for Sustainable Development through environmental conservation. The conceptual issues of this study will include the practices to mitigate its impact on environmental and socio economic development, the perception of the people about SWM, and assess the impact of solid waste management on the environment and sustainable development. Furthermore, the study focuses on SWM not only as a government responsibility. It should also be done by every individual, since the waste is produced from households. These issues therefore serve as part of the conceptual framework for the study of Waste Management Practices of Senior High School Students in Samal District for Sustainable Development in Island Garden City of Samal, Davao Del Norte.Figure 1. shows the conceptual application in the study. The figure explains the link between SWM, environmental conservation and Sustainable Development. Further it shows development with growing economy and population generates the Solid Waste which causes environmental pollution and degradation. Waste separation, recycling and composting can be used as a method for SWM with legal structure, awareness rising, attitude change, synergized between authority and the community to mitigate these impact on the environment.Figure 1: Conseptual Framework  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS A research hypothesis is a statement of expectation of prediction that will be tested by research. Ha- This study can help us to know the advantages and disadvantages about solid waste management. Ho- This study will not be effective to others. Ha- This study can help a lot of students to be more educated towards solid waste management. Ho- This study will not be helpful to others. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Ethically, the beauty of our environment lies on its good sanitary condition. This is so because, when an environment is clean the lives of citizens are not threatened by illnesses and diseases. Proper refuse disposal management involves the dumping of waves (solid, liquid or gaseous) from our homes, industries and public outfits for example hotels, hospitals and schools and etc. At a specific place or in government provided containers and the control and removal of refuse from places where they can cause hazards to a place where they are less hazardous to public health. Many areas around the homes are littered with domestic refuse sewage waste, garbage and other waste from industrial operations. Industrial operations are characterized by the generation of large volume of wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Some of these wastes are toxic with negative impacts on our environment, land, water and air. To ensure a clean and safe environment, government established to monitor the environment quality and to ensure a refuse-free environment. However, despite the government effort at making the environment clean in Island Garden City of Samal, people seem to be careless about their environment. Despite the provision of refuse receptacles by the government and many people still prefer dumping refuse at places they considered convenient to them. People seem not to be aware of the interrelatedness of dirty environment and diseases. Victims of environment related disease like malaria fever, typhoid fever, and others seem to be on the increase.This shows that there is a great need of collecting the garbage properly and recycling for the betterment of mankind and the other living beings.Problem Statement: Since the garbage collection system is not well managed in Island Garden City of Samal, people dispose the garbage wherever possible mostly in the drainages or the river banks. This has led to huge environmental pollution deteriorating the health of mankind and the other living beings. Due to the lack of knowledge of disposing the wastages, people trash the garbage in a way they want. We can see garbage all around the city including in the roads, play grounds, parks and even in other establishments. People throw the garbage without realizing that it is affecting their own health and will deteriorate the future generation’s living standard. Proper garbage collection reduces the amount of trash that eventually ends up in landfills. If such wastages are collected properly and recycled, it substitutes as a raw material.  DEFINITION OF TERMS            For clearer understanding of this study, the following terms were defined conceptually and operationally.  Waste – is any solid, liquid and gaseous wastes emitted by the people. It could either be biodegradable or non-biodegradable wastes.   Waste Management – is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials.   Public Market –  is a place where people buy their foods.Practices-  the form, manner and order of conducting legal suit and prosecution.  Samal District –  is one of the district in Island Garden City of Samal (IGACOS). They had 3 District in IGaCoS, first is the Babak District, second is Samal District and last is the Kaputian District.Senior High School- a school usually including grade 11 until grade 12. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The importance of this study is to know how to minimize our waste or garbage in the community, home, society, or public areas, where they had a big impact in to our health.  The study aimed ensuring a clean environment in the said City. It analyzed the underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the city and suggested possible measures to tackle the problem. The research gathered data from Senior High School in Samal District, such as Tagbitan-ag Senior High School, Del Monte Senior High School, San Jose Senior High School and IGB Function Training Center Senior High School. The researcher of this study gathered the information using the two main techniques in gathering the data were: preliminary field investigation and questionnaire survey. The following key findings were established to be the factors affecting effective solid waste management in the Samal District Senior High School. These are the following:Inadequate skip supply for storing waste.Lack of routine collection of Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable.Poor method of waste management.They didn’t apply the segregation proper on waste.Inadequate resources for waste management institution to effectively collect waste generated.They are not Responsible in their garbage.  In the light of these problems enumerated above, the research recommended the adequate supply of skips, regular collection of waste, use of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) Model, proper management of the landfill and adequate sourcing of the waste management institutions. The collection of refuse is irregular and efficient in Island Garden City of Samal. Litter and refuse often accumulated along roads and public places, creating breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents responsible for the spread of many diseases. The vehicles used were open trucks, which exposed their putrefying load for all to see and smell as they move through the city. Drains and rivers were choked with refuse and there was open burning of waste everywhere. The result reveals whether the publics are aware of the health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump. It also shows why governmental effort may not be enough in solving environmental problem and why individual must be involved.The study would be utilized by the government at both federal and the level through their various Heads like, Head of Environment, Head of Education, Head of Health and Head of Information.   G. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDYThis study is delimited in knowing how the Senior Students in Samal District manages their wastes. Thus, it is also delimited in identifying the materials they are using in managing their wastes. This study looks into the solid waste management situation in Island Garden City of Samal, Philippines as a system. It looks specifically, into the wastes generated, its generators and the policies, the authorities and bodies involved in its management. Solid waste, here, refers to municipal solid waste that is under government responsibility. These are wastes coming from the following sources: Householdscommercial establishmentssome institutionsmarkets schoolsmunicipal services