Critical Thinking

CHAPTER Domestic policies that look at these issues

CHAPTER
ONE

WHAT ARE SDGs?

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

In 2015, world
leaders from 193 countries agreed on the sustainable development goals (SDGs),
the world’s new action plan for the next 15 years was to eradicate extreme
poverty and hunger, fight inequality, tackle climate change, and achieve
sustainable development for all.

The SDGs
followed the millennium development goals (MDGs) agreed in 2000 in a global
coordinated attempt to tackle development issues.  As a result, the number of people living in
extreme poverty has declined by more than half compared to 1990, more girls and
boys get to primary schools than ever before, and far more people have access
to water and essential medicines. However, progress of the MDGs has been mixed.

Today, over 800 million people still live in extreme poverty. They are also the
most vulnerable to the increasing impacts from climate change and environmental
degradation. Years of hard-won progress fighting poverty could easily be wiped
out by even small complex, economic crises, or natural disasters. Also, sub-Saharan
Africa and southern Asia consistently achieved less progress than other
regions.

The MDGs
measured success on national approaches often missing what happens with
marginalized groups like people with disabilities, indigenous groups, rural
communities, and women. The international community recognized the new
challenges and that human prosperity must go hand in hand with protecting the
planet. After 3-year participatory process, world leaders finally adopted 17 sustainable
development goals. They are:

1.         End
poverty for all

2.         Freedom
from hunger

3.         Health
and wellbeing

4.         Quality
of education

5.         Gender
equality

6.         Clean
water and sanitation

7.         Sustainable
energy for all

8.         Decent
work and economic development

9.         Innovation
and resilient infrastructure

10.       Reducing
inequalities

11.       Sustainable
cities and communities

12.       Sustainable
consumption and production

13.       Action
on climate change

14.       Healthy
oceans

15.       Sustainable
ecosystems

16.       Peace
and justice, and

17.       Global
partnerships.

There are four
underlying principles that come with the SDGs, which are transformational to
the way we work on developments in the future. These are:

i)          The
SDGs are universal: This means that they apply to every country; rich and poor,
north and south, and developed and developing. They recognize that global
challenges like tackling climate change and changing models of development require
global solutions. Domestic policies that look at these issues in one country will
have an impact in another part of the world, so we need to coordinate.

ii)         They
integrate all dimensions of sustainability i.e. social progress, economic
development, and environmental protection. For example, they tell us to grow
enough food for all without destroying the soil, or water, to develop our
economies without increasing inequality or to produce enough electricity for
all without pumping more CO2 into the atmosphere.

iii)        The
SDGs leaves no one behind. Governments have agreed that no goal should be met unless
it is met for everyone, including those in societies most vulnerable and
hardest to reach. So education must reach indigenous communities, jobs created
for women and men, quality healthcare available for all rural communities, and water
and sanitation facilities accessible for people living with disabilities
because tackling exclusion is the key to tackling inequality.

iv)        They
require the participation of all. The process to the agreed SDGs took years and
included national dialogues, consultation with civil society groups, the private
sector, and the academia, and ended with negotiations between all governments
of the UN. This is a strong sense of ownership of these goals. The result is
ambitions but it reflects what the world wants.

Today, the
implementation of the SDGs requires ongoing participations at the national and
local levels. All stakeholders have a role towards the successful achievement. Taken
together with the Paris Climate Change Agreement, the SDGs provide a new
framework for approaching sustainable development.

 

CHAPTER
TWO

SUSTAINABILITY
INDICATORS: CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)
INDICATORS

2.1.      INTRODUCTION

After
the timeline set for the implementation of initial Millennium Development Goals
expired in 2015, there came a deliberate attempt by the United Nations to
launch a new framework in achieving what is now called the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs). Eventually through collaboration with stakeholders on the
establishment of a baseline for the new goals, the Nigerian National bureau of
Statistics (NBS) compiled and published the result of a comprehensive baseline
study in October 2017. This is a report, therefore, which provides
understand­ing of the status of Nigeria on some of the Sustainable Developments
Goals indicators.

 

2.2.       COUNTRY PROFILE

There
are 36 states in Nigeria, with Abuja as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

All these states consist all-together 774 local government councils and they
are the tiers of the government closest to the local communities. In 2015, the
estimated population of Nigeria was put at 186,000,000, making it the most populated
black nation in the world and accounting for 47% of the total population of
West Africa. Moreover, Nigeria is the largest exporter of crude oil in Africa and,
at the same time, claims title for the biggest reserve of natural gas on the
continent of Africa. The country covers an estimated area of 923,768km2 and
it is bordered to the north by Niger Republic, to the northeast by Chad, to the
east by Cameroon, to the west by Benin Republic, and to the south by the
Atlantic Ocean.

 

2.3.      SOCIAL
INDICATORS

These include, but not limited to,
health, education, and hunger.

2.3.1.   Health:

Definition:       Proportion
of birth attended by skilled health personnel

Description:    This
indicator includes a measure of health and
well-being for all at all ages by improv­ing reproductive, maternal and child
health. The aim is to improve reproduc­tive and maternal and child health. This
Goal impacts the life of everyone in the country.

Analysis
and Presentation:

From the analysis of
results obtained, there is a general rise in the number of women requiring the
aid of health personnel during birth. The figure was about 48% in 2011, reduced
to 38.1% in 2013 but rose to 58.6% in 2014. (GOAL 3-SDG)

2.3.2.   Education:

Definition:       Proportion
of children, by sex, under 5 years of age who are developmen­tally on track in
health, learning and psychoso­cial well-being.

Description:    This
indicator shows all people who have access to
quality education and lifelong learning opportunities. This Goal focuses on the
acquisition of foundational and higher-order skills; greater and more equitable
access to technical and vocational education and training and higher education;
training throughout life; and the knowledge, skills and values needed to
function well and contribute to society.

Analysis and
Presentation: .

GOAL 4 OF SDG

The 2011 Multiple Indicators Cluster survey (MICS) of the
Nigerian Bureau of Statistics/UNICEF demonstrates that 93.5% and 93.1% male and
female children, respectively, who are less than 5 years old are under
development related to their health. Also, 77.4% and 79.1% males and females
respectively are under various learning programmes while 63.8% and 66.1% males
and females respectively are also undergoing education related to psychological
well-being. Lastly, during pre-school 1 for both males and females, organized
learning prior to the official school entry age was found to be effective while
pre-school 2 and 3 witnessed significant reductions.

2.3.3.   Hunger:

Definition:       Prevalence of undernourishment

Description:   

 

The
purpose is to
foster secure, adequate, and nutritious food for good health.  Based on the concept
that everybody has right to good-quality food, sustainable farming is a key,
with increased productivity, and efficient supply of agricultural products to meet
ever-growing food demands. In addition,
aids and investment from international organizations are also needed.

 

Analysis
and Presentation:

Through
a variety of studies carried out with the
aid of NBS in conjunction with UNICEF /OSSAP-MDGs, the widespread undernourishment was obsereved as: MICS 2011 (24.20%), OSSAP-MDGs
2012 (27.40%) but  25.50% I 2014 for MDGs
2015. However, from NDHS 2013 and
NPopC/UNICEF, the figure stood at 28.70% Hunger, in terms of quality and
quantity, must therefore be eradicated to attain
equitable food supply before the year 2030. The occurrence
of insecurity of food among Nigerians has
been esti-mated to be 26.4% but
extreme insecurity
amounts to 19.6%. Lastly, malnutrition measurements in children under the age
of 5 show 16.4% according to MDGs (2014), from 12% in 2012. Also the result was
10.2% according to MICS (2011) and 18% according to NDHS (2013).

 

2.4.      ECONOMIC
INDICATORS:

The indicators here include, but not
limited to, income, GDP, and Debt.

2.4.1.   Income:

Definition:               Growth
rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per
cent of the population)

Description:    This
indicator generally focus on reducing inequalities
in income, as well as those based on sex, age, disability, race, class,
ethnicity, religion and oppor­tunity—both within and among countries.

Analysis
and Presentation:    

GOAL
10 OF SDG

The
rate of growth of income or expenditure from households in the least 40% among
Nigerians was 1.64% in the year 2012. In 2013, leap in this proportion was
recorded and the new percentage grew to 39.49% after which it capsized in 2014
to 9.51%. however, in 2015, it rose to 14.79%. this represents wide
inconsistency on the results.

2.4.2.   GDP:

Definition:       Proportion of small-scale
industries in total industry value-added;

Description:    This indicator promotes of infrastructural development,
industrialization and innovation, which can be accomplished through enhanced
international and domestic financial, technological and technical support,
research and innovation, and increased access to information and communication
technology.

Analysis and Presentation:

GOAL 9 OF SDG.

There is an increase in
employment recorded in the manufacturing industries in relation to the amount
of employment in all sectors of the economy. Though a gradual increment, in
2011 it was 0.20% increase while in 2015 it had recorded 0.31%. the absolute
figure in all sectors was put at 0.63% in 2013 for all value-based small scale
firms.

2.4.3.   Debt:

Definition:       Debt
service as a proportion of exports of goods and services

Description:    Increasing support to develop­ing countries, particularly
the LDCs, landlocked developing countries and Small Island Developing States is
fundamental to equitable progress for all.

 

Analysis
and Presentation:     Debt service as a
proportion of goods and services increased from 8.09 per cent in 2011 to
12.77per cent in 2014.

– GOAL 17 OF SDG

 

The observation on the debt service shows
a tremendous fall from 2011 at 17.4% to 2015 at 7.3%. this is because the proportion
of services/goods in the year 2011 rose from 8.09% to about 12.8% in the year
2014

 

2.5.      ENVIRONMENTAL
INDICATORS

They include, but not limited to, natural
hazards, water, and forests.

2.5.1.   Natural
Hazards:

Definition:       Number of countries that
have communi­cated the strengthening of institutional, systemic and individ­ual
capacity-building to implement adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer
and development actions

Description:    This involves strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to
climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.

Analysis
and Presentation:     GOAL 13/17 OF SDG.

In response to the need for qualified personnel who are
capable of adapting, implementing, mitigating, and transferring technological
and developmental actions, Nigeria, over a number of years has been able to manage
over 10 institutions focused on research in agriculture. In every corner, the
arising emergencies is adequately responded to by National Emergency Management
Agency (NEMA), among others. Agencies at various governmental arms also contributed
significantly to different emergency situations at varying spatial-temporal
scales all over the country.

 

2.5.2.   Water:

Definition:       Proportion of population using improved drinking wa­ter
sources

Description:    The targets of Goal 6 go beyond drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene to also address the quality and sustain­ability of water
resources. To achieving this Goal, which is criti­cal to the survival of people
and the planet, means expanding international cooperation and garnering the
support of local communities to improve water and sanitation management. Agenda
2030 recognizes the centrality of water resources to sustainable development
and the vital role that improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene play in
the develop­ment of the community.

 

Analysis and Presentation:     GOAL 6 SDG.

 

In Nigeria, around 70% of
the population have access to water source safe for drinking in 2015. However, this
represents a significant improvement to the same study area because only 57.8%
of the Nigerians were reported in 2012 with the same level of water quality.

 

2.5.3.   Forests:

Definition:       This
expresses forest area as a proportion of total land area

Description:    Targets focus on managing forests sustainably, restoring
degraded lands and successfully combating deserti­fication, reducing degraded
natural habitats and ending biodi­versity loss. All of these efforts in
combination will help ensure that livelihoods are preserved for those that
depend directly on forests and other ecosystems, that biodiversity will thrive,
and that the benefits of these natural resources will be enjoyed for
generations to come.

Analysis and Presentation:GOAL-15 OF SDG

 

Another good environmental
indicator for many countries is the forest area and foliage cover (the area of
land covered by the leaves on a tree).  There
is an observed decline in the area covered by forests between 2010 and 2015
estimated at 9.9% and 7.7% respectively. From this, it can be concluded that
there has been a decrease in quality of the natural environment, especially as
it relates to biodiversity.

 

2.6.      CONCLUSION

The
united nation’s Sustainable Development Agenda (2030) has been adopted by
Nigeria, like many other nations, as the vehicle required to free ourselves
from poverty, to secure a planet healthy for generations to come, and to build
a society that is peaceful and all-inclusive in order to ensure a dignified
existence for humanity. At the heart of the momentum, globally, is to involve
everybody.

The
Agenda, set against 2030, is rich in ambitions and transformations, encompassing
17 consolidated and inter-connected SDGs assessed in terms of indicators or metrics.

Essentially,
this Agenda is a shared plan and thus requires sustainability to be able to
deal with issues adequately.

 

REFERENCES

UN (2017). Retrieved from:
http://www.ng.undp.org/content/nigeria/en/home/library/mdg/nigeria-sdgs-indicators-baseline-report-2016.html

x

Hi!
I'm Simon!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out