Critical Thinking

African more frequently than white students (Payne

African American boys are suspended and
expelled at a higher rate than their white counterparts.  Minority students only make up seventeen
percent of students enrolled in public schools but they account for thirty-two
percent of all out-of-school suspensions. (Losen & Martinez, 2013;
Gottfredson, 2001). Studies also show that students who experience the most
severe forms of school discipline are also the individuals that are most likely
to enter the criminal justice system as adults. (Payne & Welch, 2010).  In addition, numerous researchers have found
correlations between race of a student and the intensity of the punishment they
receive for similar crimes.  Black
students receive punitive treatment more frequently than white students (Payne
& Welch, 2010; Kupchk & Ellis, 2009).

Transformational leaders work with their
teams to create a vision of change and work with their teams to create that
change in their organization (REFERENCE).  Many studies have shown a disproportionate

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Problem Statement

            Discipline Gap

Purpose

The purpose of
this quantitative study study is to address principal leadership style and the
effect on the discipline and suspension of African American boys.  In this study, suspension data will be used to
test the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positively affect the
suspension rates for African American boys in the Inland Empire. 

Theoretical Framework

            Critical race theory studies many of the
same issues as traditional civil liberties study, but puts these issues into
the perspective of economics, history, and context (Delgado & Stefancic,
2001).  Although many believe that intuitions
in the United States, such as the public school system, are colorblind, this
version of the truth allows academics and practitioners to address only the
most egregious racial harms.  It is, in
reality, the practices and institutions in the United States that keep
minorities in subordinate positions (Delgado & Stefancic, 2001).  This study is conducted in this framework. 

            Transformational Leadership
Theory

Research Questions

 

Background
about discipline and leadership style here

RQ1:
What is the risk ratio for out of school suspensions of African American males
to white students in participating public school districts in the Inland Empire?

RQ2:
Does a relationship exist between principal’s leadership style as measured by
the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the rate of suspension for African
American males in public schools.

H02:
There is no statistically significant relationship between principal’s
leadership styles and the rate of suspension for African American males in
public schools.

Ha2:
There is a statistically significant relationship between principal’s
leadership styles and the rate of suspension for African American males in
public schools.

Significance
of the Study

As evidence mounts of the disparity of
suspensions and punitive consequences for young men of color in our schools, it
is important that possible causes of this disparity are identified so school
leaders can build solutions.  This study
will add to the body of knowledge in looking at the relationship between school
leadership and the disproportionate number of suspensions of African American
youth. Studies in the body of literature note the relationship, but data on the
correlations to provide empirical evidence do not exist.

School leaders will use the results from
this study to inform their decisions on how to implement discipline procedures
in their schools.  They will better be
able to determine discipline policies based on the relationship between school
security and student discipline.

District leaders will use the results
from this study to aide them in hiring decisions when hiring leaders for
secondary schools.  To create a more just
school system, transformational leaders need to be in place at the site level
in school districts.

Definitions

School
Resource Officer (SRO) – Sworn public safety officer who receives extra
training to work in public schools.  This
officer is a member of the local police force and not an employee of the school
district.

Out-of-School
Suspension – Punishment requiring student to refrain from attending school and
all school related functions.

Expulsion
– Punishment requiring students not to attend the school or district from which
they are expelled from for one year.  The
student and their parents are still required to find a school that will take
them based on compulsory school attendance laws.

PBIS
– Positive Behavior Intervention System. 
These systems rely on the positive interactions of staff and students to
decrease behavior and discipline issues in schools.

Restorative
Justice – A strategy used in schools that allows students who break rules at
school to apologize to the people affected and make right the wrong caused by
their actions.

Transformational
Leadership –

Limitations
of Study

Delimitations of Study

Summary

African American students are suspended
at a disproportionate rate compared to their white counterparts in US public
schools.  This phenomenon has been
documented in a number of studies, but the literature is lacking in research as
to why this phenomenon exists (Payne & Welch, 2010;
Kupchik & Ellis, 2011). 

Chapter 2: Literature
Review

The purpose of this quantitative study is
to address principal leadership style and the effect on the discipline and
suspension of African American boys. In this study, suspension data will be
used to test the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positively
affect the suspension rates for African American boys in the Inland
Empire. 

This literature review will cover race
relations in schools, race and suspension in US schools, transformational
leadership, and the effect of transformational leaders on schools.  Understanding of these themes adds to the
understanding of the problem of disproportionate suspension in relation to the he
leadership style of the principal.  Under
the umbrella of the critical race theory this issue is in the context of
economic and social norms.

Keywords searched for this literature
review included school security, suspensions, school resource officers,
discipline procedures, security measures, school police, school discipline,
transformational leadership, school principal and school leader. The databases
used in this literature search were ERIC, EBSCO, SOCIndex, Academic Search
Premiere, Sage Journals, and PsycBook.

Chapter Three: Methodology

Short synopsis of problem statement
here

The purpose of this mixed methods study
is to address principal leadership style and the effect on the discipline and
suspension of African American boys.  An
explanatory parallel mixed methods design will be used.  In this study, suspension data will be used
to test the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positively affect
the suspension rates for African American boys in the Inland Empire.  The reason for collecting both quantitative
and qualitative data is to explain the results of our quantitative data of
principal leadership style and suspension rates of African American boys.

Research Questions and Hypothesis

            The
study utilized the following research questions and hypothesis to guide the
investigative process:

·     
RQ1: What is the risk ratio for out of school
suspensions of African American males to white students in participating public
school districts in the Inland Empire?

·     
RQ2: Does a relationship exist between
principal’s leadership style as measured by the Multifactor Leadership
Questionnaire and the rate of suspension for African American males in public
schools.

·     
H02: There is no statistically
significant relationship between principal’s leadership styles and the rate of
suspension for African American males in public schools.

·     
Ha2: There is a statistically
significant relationship between principal’s leadership styles and the rate of
suspension for African American males in public schools.

Research Design

Population and Sample

            This study was conducted in
Riverside and San Bernardino county school districts in Southern
California.  The combined counties of
Riverside and San Bernardino make up the Inland Empire.  Riverside County has XX secondary schools and San Bernardino
County has XX
secondary schools (REFERENCE).

The demographics of the school leaders in this geographic area are: XX are female, XX are White, XX are African American, XX have a Master’s degree
and XX have a
Doctorate degree (REFERENCE).

            School’s with an African American
population of more than 85% were excluded from this study.  When the racial group of interest makes up a
majority of the population of the school it is not possible to get risk ratios
for a racial composition due to the lack of disproportionality (Kessinger,
2015).  Schools that did not report
suspensions for African American students were also excluded from the
study.  Charter schools, magnet schools
and community day schools were also excluded from this study.  Many charter and magnet schools have an
application system and lottery for admission. 
This allows the principal more discretion on the students admitted to
the school versus traditional public schools. 
Alternative schools are already dealing with students who have been
expelled.  This learning environment is
inherently different than a traditional public secondary school.

Participants

            Quantitative. The
participants in the study were principals during the 2016-2017 school year,
which is the most current suspension data year. 
The survey sent to princpals asked how long they have served as principal
at their school.  Principals that
indicate less than two years were excluded from the study because they were not
principal of the school during the 2016-2017 school year.  The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
(MLQ) was distributed to secondary school leaders in the inland empire.  Suspension data for African American males in
the Inland Empire was retrieved from public data through the California
Department of Education.

           

Instrumentation

            The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
will be used as a data gathering instrument to quantify the leadership style of
secondary school leaders in the Inland Empire. The Multifactor Leadership
Questionnaire was created by Avolio and Bass and is currently sold and
distributed by MindGarden, inc. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (add stats about number of
questions, validity, reliability, etc here).

Validity

Whether the measurement really measures
what it purports to measure (Warner, 2013). 
Get this information from Mind Garden

Reliability

Consistency of measurements results
(Warner, 2013). Get this information from Mind Garden

Data Collection

            Quantitative
data. The researcher sought approval from XX superintendents who
had schools in their district that matched the research requirements for this
study to use the district email system to distribute the survey. After approval
from the superintendent the researcher sent the MLQ to principal’s through
their school email address.

Describe
how I will link the survey with suspension data here.  Probably a unique code identifier.

             

Response Rate

            The
researcher in this study provided the participants six weeks to complete the
survey.  A reminder email was sent once a
week for the six weeks to the participants who had not yet completed the
survey.  Response rate literature and citation here.

Data Analysis

Quantitative data analysis. The
researcher utilized the Student edition of SPSS (get real name) to analyze the quantitative data
in this study.  The researcher conducted
descriptive and inferential statistics analyses.  The first variable of interest was the
leadership style, which was measure by Alonios and Bass’s (XXXX) Multifactor
Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ).  The
second variable of interest was the 2016-2017 suspension data from the
California Department of Education.

To determine the risk ration of
out-of-school suspensions the researcher calculated the risk index (Kessinger,
2015). This analysis was done to respond to research question one.  The risk was calculated using the formula
below:

Risk Index = Number of Suspensions
received by a racial group / Total students enrolled

The risk index was calculated by
comparing the risk index for African American students to the risk index for
white students (Gibb and
Skiba, 2008; Gregory et al, 2010). The risk ratio was calculated using
the formula below:

Risk ratio = Risk index of suspensions
for African American males / Risk index of suspensions for White males

A risk ration of 1.00 meant there was no
disproportionality in out-of –school suspensions for African American males (Gibb and Skiba, 2008).  This is the same measure the State of
California uses to calculate disproportionality in school districts. (CITATION). 

To investigate the relationship between
principal’s leadership style and the out-of-school suspension rates of African
American males, a Pearson correlations statistical analysis was conducted.  This approach was appropriate because it
allowed for the examination between principal leadership style and
disproportionality in African American males. 
Correlational statistical analysis was used to address research question
two. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine significance.  

x

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