Critical Thinking

Abstract—This drivers and passengers and enhances automation in

Abstract—This paper basically deals about self driven
cars and their vehicle to environment connection to
provide low carbon dioxide emission, avoid accidents.
Since car is evolving with time in todays world ninety
percent of car innovation is in electronics. Vehicles are
transformed to a mobile personalised information.
Advanced Driver Assistance System permit the security
and safety of drivers and passengers and enhances
automation in driving.Self-driven cars will bring a
heterogeneity of wireless connections for the exchange of
data with other vehicles and the surrounding environment
all this will aim at understanding the world around it in a
way to reduces accidents and give passengers confidence in
using these new secure self driven cars.In this paper we
will be presenting an idea for decreasing the data storage
problem in self driven car and method for handing such
enormous amount of data .The solution is to not store any
data in the car apart from it download everything from the
cloud as per the need of vehicle,surrounding and driver. In
this we are relying on cloud infrastructure for the cloud.
Capable reliable wireless and wired communication
technologies together with powerful data-processing
system, at the perk levels of privacy and system security,
are analytical. This paper gives an idea what it takes to
really believe the securely connected car of the future.
Keywords—CAN, LIN, ADAS, V2X, Ethernet
Introduction
In today’s world wired communication in car is influence by
Local Interconnect Network(LIN) and Controller Area
Network(CAN). LIN is a serial network protocol (protocols
are basically some set of defined rules for transmission of data
between deferent devices ) used for transferring information
between various component in vehicle. CAN is basically a bus
designed in such a way to permit micro controller and various
devices to share information with each other. bandwidth of
LIN is upto 20kbps and CAN is upto 1mbps each of these are
cost effective we can achieve high bandwidth link using pointto-point
links (shielded cables).There is a demand of a system
with higher bandwidth and for this we required a new
communication technology for avoiding the increasing cost
and weight of copper cable in car. The application which
required higher bandwidth include V2X, ADAS,Car radar.
For this automotive ethernet is a new point-to-point network
communication technology that is based on unshielded twisted
paper (UTP). It gives us an increase of bandwidth ,increased
data capacity, cost efficient, reducing weight but it leads in
toughness of design. this is because of switches, transceivers
and controllers used in it.
Deterministic Ethernet points to a technology which uses time
scheduling for bringing deterministic real time communication
to a predefined IEEE 802 ethernet.It operates using a global
sense of time.
Object Detection will be the most significant application for
Ethernet , since it requires much higher bandwidth for video
transportation.
Ease of Use
A. VEHICLE-TO-EVERYTHING(V2X) COMMUNICATION
It basically involves the sharing of information of vehicle and
traffic related data between cars and different frames . The
main aim for this is safety with energy saving.It is based on
WLAN technology. Examples of V2X messages are warning
about hazardous location,emergency breaking, time of traffic
lights.This technology is highly recommended for reducing
road accident, decreasing carbon dioxide emission,improving
the flow of traffic,enabling autonomous driving. This
technology enables a car to trace more than 300 objects and
respond size is less than 20ms and it has a very low latency.
Challenges are penetration level of V2X.For having effective
network of cars at least 10% of them must have ITS module.
B. Car radar
Basically a radar is used to detect if the speed is being
observed by cops using a radar gun they are generally used so
that the driver can decrease the cars speed before being caught
by the police.It uses the doppler effect to masseur the relative
speed of vehicle.New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)
demands self sufficient emergency breaking system and
pedestrian protection system. Radar provides range,velocity
information to different sensors such as camera.Now a days
reducing power consumption or increasing power efficiency
can be achieved by reducing sensor size.The radar IC is used
for covering 76-81GHz bandwidth for high range resolution.It
is being verified by RFCMOS radars are useful for operating
in micro meter Wave band and by this we can use system on
chip automotive radar including processors on a monolithic
die.
C. Automotive Quality
Devices in Self driven cars must with stand difficult
environmental condition there for it requires rigorous
packaging,circuit design,control of processing technologies . It
will have various constrains, Stricter rules on device size.As a
consequence this leads to design consuming high power in
order to full fill this robustness requirement .
D.Near area information exchange
It is commonly known as near field communication (NFC).It
connects devices over smaller range and high frequency
wireless communication technology can be achieved.It
enables the transfer of data between devices about a distance
of 10cm.It interfaces a smart card and a reader into one device
it permits exchange of data between digital devices like using
cell phone for booking online tickets.As it’s range is very less
it gives a higher degree of security than commonly use
bluetooth it can also work if power is not being supplied in the
device.The most important thing is that the tree operation
modes are supported that is read/write,card emulation and
device-to-device communication.
E.Ultrawide Band
This technology is used for transmitting processed data over a
large bandwidth.A 100 khz signal is communicated through
multiple antenna with in the car to make a response in the key,
giving information regarding space between the car and the
key by calculating strength of the signal. IEEE suggest a
different method by calculating the time of flight(TOF) of RF
signal between the source and the destination.The TOF
efficiency is directly proposal to signal bandwidth.It can also
be used for tracking purpose of wireless monitoring of
windows or mirror adjustment .
F.Security
The thing we have discuss like various electronic function it
gives driver and increase comfort,safety,accuracy,convenient,
but it has some risks with it.This days vehicles are turning to
(smart phones on whiles) which processes,store,exchange
large amount of data. By using wireless interfaces we can
connected to external network but it increase the probability of
being hacked,resulting the vehicle to be more vulnerable to
cyber attacks.Hacker’s can gain complete remote control over
vehicle.This leads to security by design and privacy by design
the key objects of security system includes hardware for
example(Trust Anchors) which save our data against being
hacked.This are the small crypto chips used in various
products like ATM cards.passports,visa but safety system may
be isolated from the entertainment system present in the car.
This architecture needs to be regularly to handle attacks with
more efficiency.We should implement multiple security
techniques to minimise the ricks of electronics devices that are
being inside in the car. firstly we need to protect car external
interfaces as they are prone for remote and scalable attacks the
channel should be secure against data manipulation and
unauthorised access by this interfaces.For providing protection
in this layers cryptographic technologies must be used for
encryption and decryption of data received that the receiver
side.
But securing system with this system are not sufficient.The
security implementation should be isolated from deferent not
secure code.To secure against side channel attacks hardware
should be design in such a way that it does not leak
unintended information with timing,consumption of power or
leakage due to electro magnetic field that could be an
advantage for a hacker to find out information about what
hardware is doing or what data are store it.This is all about the
internal protection but physical attack requires physical
protection.when hackers want to attack IC’s there should be
some tamper resistance for detecting some attacks.For
example people may use integrated sensors and after detection
of the attack it should automatically take appropriate counter
masseur like powering of or distorting critical data so that it
can not be stolen.
G.Cloud Storing
We will be assuming that the connectivity of the network is
available though out.The data which we will be receiving from
various sources is not necessary to search space to store it
cloud is the exact solution for this.If the data is required the
software will use it by downloading it.We should take care
about some external storage to store the area map so that it can
be run even if the network is not available. Now when the
driven will be starting the car the computer will get connect to
the network which will run web console and asked the user to
sign in with user name and password which was already
registered with the cloud service provider. The user can now
input the location were we want to reach,the software will
download set of programs to process the data and the data
which is already store in the cloud will be taken by it and it’s
starts processing.And it will be act as a learning agent which
basically learn from it’s experiences for example were a
particular person goes often which are it’s favourite routes and
it will use this information for the next time.It will also have
the privacy which the user want.Suppose a user want to go to
the place were the network is not available so the vehicle
automatically store the dat in advance.And if it sea a network
issue it will asked the user to drive manually.When the
location is reached the software delete all the data thus
increase the security .Self driven car will also spot the
mechanical problem in advanced and even repair it.Self
driving cars uses two dimensional camera and “LiDAR” to
recognise different objects.
H.Types of Automation
1.No Automation: This is level zero automation in which the
driver is the only person who will be having control over
vehicle such as break accelerator staring.
2.Function defined automation: This is level one automation
in which one or more function will be automated for example
a car which have automatic gear will automatically change
inside the system.It basically assist the driver..
3.Combine function automation: In this level minimal of two
operation should be automatic for example the driver may
have his hand and foot at a particular time while which the
vehicle will be operating on the car .
Conclusion
This self driven fully connected cars will only be a reality if
they are secure and 100% reliable.The quality and security are
the foremost requirement to gain customer confidence in this
highly advanced new technology.Functionality like V2X,car
radar, ethernet are all ready available but will continue to
increase performance as well as their integration.
Acknowledgment
We would like to show our special thanks of gratitude to our
professor Dr. Ramesh Vaddi for providing us this golden
opportunity and guiding us. By this project we came to know 

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