Critical Thinking

Abstract: In Cloud computing, for sharing resources they

Abstract:

In Cloud computing, for sharing
resources they are using heavy weighted virtualization techniques. This
involves in deploying Virtual Machines by using hypervisors. Container Based virtualization
is a light-weight alternative to Virtual Machine that has gained huge
popularity due to its recent evolution. Container Based virtualization has
proven very effective in terms of performance and many industries are now
having their virtualized environment run in Linux Containers. Linux Containers
occupy less storage space and this gives a boost in the performance for the
task they are assigned.  Linux container
features are much more beneficial over traditional Virtual Machines which is
why there is an immense need for them to be available in the cloud. There are
many projects that have extended their support in integrating containers in the
cloud. In this paper, we will see one such open source cloud computing project
known as OpenStack and see the existing integration of containers in it.G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 

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Introduction:

Virtualization
technique is used to virtualize native hardware for running Guest Operating
System known as Virtual Machine. Virtualization has been playing a very
significant role in Cloud computing and is extensively used. Maximum
utilization of resources is carried out by sharing them with Virtual Machine.
The technique of virtualization induces an overhead in the performance of Guest
Operating System by consuming storage, memory and wasting CPU resources. This
limitation of Virtual Machine has led to the development of Linux Containers.

Linux containers are lightly weighted as they consume
less amount of space and have shorter deployment time. They are easily
manageable and help in maximizing utilization of computing resources.
Interoperability and portability of application developed using Linux
containers has made them popular in today’s competitive market. Now Microsoft
has also started in developing Windows containers.G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 

In
the cloud, management of the resources is very vital in deciding the cost.
Wastage of resources won’t benefit consumer nor the cloud provider. Features of
Linux containers have led to the integration of Linux containers in the cloud
that simplifies the management of services. Though Linux containers use the
Host Operating System kernel there is isolation between them by using packaging
techniques.G12 G13 

OpenStack
is open source and is widely adopted by cloud providers due to its benefits and
has proven a great platform for integrating Linux Containers in them. Open
source projects are integrated into OpenStack to provide cloud infrastructure.
This individual projects can be deployed independently to server the desired
task, such as Cinder can be deployed to provide storage, Neutron is deployed
for networking. Similar open source projects for integrating containers in
OpenStack are been developed. OpenStack Magnum project provides API for
interacting with Container Orchestration Engines. OpenStack Zun is used for
managing container images. G14 OpenStack Kolla is
a platform for deploying containers on Bare Metal or Virtual Machine. Recently,
OpenStack KataTM project has been announced to combine benefits of Virtual
Machine and Containers.

Containers:

            They are a lightweight alternative to
virtualization which is portable & consumes very less memory which is in
Mb’s as compared to Virtual Machines where they consume memory in Gb’s. They
are used to store entire application having all of its dependencies, libraries
& configuration files required for running them. To achieve isolation of
containers they are packaged together in a single image file.G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 

In Virtualization, Hypervisor is used to emulate
hardware for Operating System to run on it. Virtualized environment has
separate Kernels for Host Operating System and Guest Operating System. The
hypervisor is an abstract layer between Guest Operating System and Native
Hardware. Having hypervisor in between Guest Operating System and Host Hardware
adds an overhead in the performance of Virtual Machine and ultimately slows the
working of Virtual Machine due to emulated hardware.G21 G22 G23 

Virtualization technique is used by both Virtual
Machine and Linux Containers but is present to address different problems. G24 Containers deliver
software that is present in G25 the cloud.
Features of containers ensure interoperability & portability of
applications.G26 G27 

“Containerization is nothing but the process of
abstracting away all the differences in Operating System distributions and
their underlying infrastructure by encapsulating discrete components of
application logic, including the application platform and its dependencies,
with the help of lightweight containers.”

Types
of Containerization:

1.     
Operating System Containerization:

They
provide user-space isolation and share the kernel of the Host Operating System.
They are similar to Virtual Machine. For creating Operating System containers,
we can use techniques such as G28 OpenVZ, LXC, Linux
VServer, Solaris and many more.

2.     
Application Containerization:

Operating
System containers are meant to run multiple processes and services whereas
application containers can run single service. Rocket, Docker are examples that
provide application containers.

Advantages
of containerization:

a.      
Containers are
lightweight as their resource consumption is lesser that Virtual Machine.

b.        
CPU usage is
increased over Virtual Machine and saves memory, storage, and other resources.G29 

c.         
Containers are
highly portable.

d.        
Due to the reduced
size of containers, many numbers of containers can be running on a single host.G30 G31 

e.         
CRUD operations
can be easily performed on them.

Drawbacks
of containerization:

a.         
Complete isolation
between containers is not present.

b.        
Due to the limited
level of isolation, theG32 G33 y are vulnerable
in aspect to security.

Containers are not the complete replacement to Virtual G34 Machine as they use Host Operating System Kernel.

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