Analysis of the interviews. The recorded interviews were analyzed in
detail. This analysis was made to identify specific concerns about the topics
of Social Innovation and Design. Design was considered as a topic that could be
expressly mentioned, or descripted on the process to generate a solution.
analysis took as basis the existing notes. Despite using a transcript of each
interview to encounter new categories. For each interview, a set of categories
of topics was created, and these were later clustered in codes and compared to
the ones present in the other interviews. Thus, resulting in a common pattern.
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codes with which the categories were labeled serve as the concepts that form
the theory -in this case a description-; that can be used to elaborate on
recommendations for designers wanting to enter the field of Social Innovation.
description is made from the similar concerns appearing on the 10 interviews
used as subjects. To do it, it had to be kept in mind that this is not a
quantitative analysis and that the repetition of a pattern of equal answers is
not relevant as the inference of similar characteristics from the information
gathered. For the proposed description in this thesis, it is important to refer
to the qualities of the information.
clustering of information was done by considering the similitude of the
information and not the repetition of terms. For example:
our outcome is not really tangible, isn’t it, you can’t measure it in a way as
it will feel in the future, not immediately…”
“… the impacts are not immediate, you need
five, ten years to see them, so it is difficult to convince others, and
probably the impact will be longer…”
quotes are from two different interviews, in both there is concern about the
time it takes for the outcome -goal- to come into fruition. Which makes it
un-apprehensible for measurement tools. Thus, they were recoded under the code
“not measurable”. In terms of outcomes or impact of Social Innovation, they fit
better with the information given by the other interviewees. As it was clear
that the concern is not time, but on how to measure the impact of a solution in
an easy and fast way.
From the 10 interviews realized
a total of 28 aspects mentioned were considered as common categories. And were
coded -and recoded- following the logic of the example provided before. These
were relevant aspects that mentioned by the interviewees, and were later
clustered in the codes that define the description presented as result from
this study. These aspects were identified from similar words mentioned or
inferred by the concern they signaled. See Figure
Figure 4.2. Categories clustered by number of
interviews in which they appeared
4.2 the 28 main codes generated to
tag the concerns mentioned are presented. They appear according to the number
of interviews in which they appeared. It doesn’t mean that the more there are,
the more important that concern is. It means that some concerns could not be
put in a category equal to the one mentioned by the others. For instance, the
code “change on relations” is present in all the interviews, because in some
form or another in all the interviewees it was mentioned how the initiative
could bring a group of people together with others. Another example is the one
of “Public sector calls” which only appears in three interviews, but it means
that it was expressed in one way that their initiative started attending a call
from a public institution -government-.
categories created were later clustered in to eight main codes. as they were
related to specific issues mentioned by the interviewees.
The last three interviews had a
more direct relation to the field of Design, and for these a second re-coding
was done. Using categories pertinent to the field of Design. These had more
relevance to how the processes of Design are conducted; and how designers
should conduct them in projects that are for Social Innovation or for
non-tangible solutions. The categories generated were not clustered with the
main categories, and are not part of the main description; but they are
referenced as part of the results of this thesis. Some of the concerns are very
specific to the way in which Design is approached by the interviewees, and
could be work for a posterior study. See Figure
Categories from the three interviews with people on the field of Design